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Zhu Fengqing

Bio: Zhu Fengqing is a academic researcher who has co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 9859 citation(s). The author has an hindex of 1. The author has done significant research in the topic(s): Medical ethics & Nursing ethics.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17265/2159-5313/2016.09.003
28 Sep 2016-Philosophy study
Abstract: There has been a shift from the general presumption that “doctor knows best” to a heightened respect for patient autonomy. Medical ethics remains one-sided, however. It tends (incorrectly) to interpret patient autonomy as mere participation in decisions, rather than a willingness to take the consequences. In this respect, medical ethics remains largely paternalistic, requiring doctors to protect patients from the consequences of their decisions. This is reflected in a one-sided account of duties in medical ethics. Medical ethics may exempt patients from obligations because they are the weaker or more vulnerable party in the doctor-patient relationship. We argue that vulnerability does not exclude obligation. We also look at others ways in which patients’ responsibilities flow from general ethics: for instance, from responsibilities to others and to the self, from duties of citizens, and from the responsibilities of those who solicit advice. Finally, we argue that certain duties of patients counterbalance an otherwise unfair captivity of doctors as helpers.

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Topics: Nursing ethics (83%), Medical ethics (65%)

9,859 Citations

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/21505594.2017.1313372
27 Feb 2018-Virulence
Abstract: Biofilm refers to the complex, sessile communities of microbes found either attached to a surface or buried firmly in an extracellular matrix as aggregates. The biofilm matrix surrounding bacteria makes them tolerant to harsh conditions and resistant to antibacterial treatments. Moreover, the biofilms are responsible for causing a broad range of chronic diseases and due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria it has really become difficult to treat them with efficacy. Furthermore, the antibiotics available till date are ineffective for treating these biofilm related infections due to their higher values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), which may result in in-vivo toxicity. Hence, it is critically important to design or screen anti-biofilm molecules that can effectively minimize and eradicate biofilm related infections. In the present article, we have highlighted the mechanism of biofilm formation with reference to different models and various methods used for biofilm detection. A major focus has been put on various anti-biofilm molecules discovered or tested till date which may include herbal active compounds, chelating agents, peptide antibiotics, lantibiotics and synthetic chemical compounds along with their structures, mechanism of action and their respective MICs, MBCs, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) as well as the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values available in the literature so far. Different mode of action of anti biofilm molecules addressed here are inhibition via interference in the quorum sensing pathways, adhesion mechanism, disruption of extracellular DNA, protein, lipopolysaccharides, exopolysaccharides and secondary messengers involved in various signaling pathways. From this study, we conclude that the molecules considered here might be used to treat biofilm-associated infections after significant structural modifications, thereby investigating its effective delivery in the host. It should also be ensured that minimum effective concentration of these molecules must be capable of eradicating biofilm infections with maximum potency without posing any adverse side effects on the host.

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Topics: Biofilm matrix (75%), Biofilm (62%), Quorum sensing (53%) ...read more

384 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14686996.2017.1361305
Abstract: We present a brief review of the microstructures and mechanical properties of selected metallic alloys processed by additive manufacturing (AM). Three different alloys, covering a large range of technology readiness levels, are selected to illustrate particular microstructural features developed by AM and clarify the engineering paradigm relating process-microstructure-property. With Ti-6Al-4V the emphasis is placed on the formation of metallurgical defects and microstructures induced by AM and their role on mechanical properties. The effects of the large in-built dislocation density, surface roughness and build atmosphere on mechanical and damage properties are discussed using steels. The impact of rapid solidification inherent to AM on phase selection is highlighted for high-entropy alloys. Using property maps, published mechanical properties of additive manufactured alloys are graphically summarized and compared to conventionally processed counterparts.

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Topics: High entropy alloys (58%)

366 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1517/17425247.2016.1171315
William M. Pardridge1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Introduction: There are 2 misconceptions about the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and brain drug delivery, which date back to the discovery of a barrier between blood and brain over 100 years ago. Misconception 1 is that drug distribution into CSF is a measure of BBB transport. Misconception 2 is that drug injected into the CSF compartment distributes to the inner parenchyma of brain.Areas Covered: Drug distribution into the CSF is a function of drug transport across the choroid plexus, which forms the blood-CSF barrier, and not drug transport across the BBB, which is situated at the microvascular endothelium of brain. Drug injected into CSF undergoes rapid efflux to the blood compartment via bulk flow. Drug penetration into brain parenchyma from the CSF is limited by diffusion and drug concentrations in brain decrease exponentially relative to the CSF concentration.Expert Opinion: The barrier between blood and brain was discovered in 1913, when it was believed that the ...

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201 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/23322039.2017.1379239
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of economic growth on CO2 emission using the dynamic panel threshold framework. The analysis is based on data from a panel of 31 developing countries. The results...

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Topics: Population (53%), Threshold model (53%)

182 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1758790
Abstract: The new Corona-virus, recently called the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) appears for the first time in China and more precisely in Wuhan (December 2019). This disease ca...

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174 Citations


Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 1

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20161

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Author's top 1 most impactful journals

Philosophy study

1 papers, 9.8K citations