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Showing papers in "International Journal of Chemical Studies in 2020"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The pharmacological activity of a plant can be predicted by the identification of the phytochemicals, which are determined by various modern techniques, but the conventional qualitative tests are still popular for the preliminary phytochemical screening of plants.
Abstract: Medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of various diseases as they possess potential pharmacological activities including antineoplastic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, antidiarrheal and other activities. Phytoconstituents individually or in the combination, determine the therapeutic value of a medicinal plant. Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, steroids, glycosides, terpenes etc. are some of the important phytochemicals with diverse biological activities. The pharmacological activity of a plant can be predicted by the identification of the phytochemicals. Currently, phytochemicals are determined by various modern techniques, but the conventional qualitative tests are still popular for the preliminary phytochemical screening of plants.

140 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Food hygiene training is crucial in food safety and is an essential part of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) concept, which designs measures to reduce risks to a safe level.
Abstract: Food hygiene are the conditions and measures necessary to certify the safety of food from production to consumption. Food can become contaminated at any point during slaughtering or harvesting, processing, storage, distribution, transportation and preparation. WHO (1984) has defined food hygiene as all conditions and measures that are required during production, processing, storage, distribution and preparation of food to ensure that it is safe, wholesome and fit for human consumption. Lack of requisite food hygiene can lead to foodborne diseases and death of the consumer. Foodborne illness has been associated with improper storage or reheating (50%), food stored inappropriately (45%) and cross-contamination (39%). The increased numbers of people eating out have caused the emergence of food borne illness due to unhygienic preparation and lack of knowledge of personal hygiene. These contributory factors are due to a lack of food hygiene awareness or implementation. Hazard analysis and critical control points, or HACCP is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) require mandatory HACCP programs for juice and meat as an effective approach to food safety and protecting public health. Food hygiene training is therefore crucial in food safety and is an essential part of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) concept. Food hygiene and safety usually refer to contamination with ‘microorganisms’ or ‘microbes’. All over the world people are seriously affected every day by diseases that are caused by consuming unhygienic and unsafe food. Good hygienic practices (GHP) to prevent and control foodborne diseases. Foodborne diseases result from eating foods that contain infectious or toxic substances. The term ‘food hygiene’ refers particularly to the practices that prevent microbial contamination of food at all points along the chain from farm to table. Food safety is a closely related but broader concept that means food is free from all possible contaminants and hazards. In practice both terms may be used interchangeably. HACCP implementation in a food business requires the recognition of hazards and their control. Therefore, a major challenge in the food industry is to motivate food handlers to apply what they have learnt regarding food hygiene.

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Adulteration in food has been a concern since the beginning of civilization, as it not only decreases the quality of food products but also results in a number of ill effects on health.
Abstract: Food is any substance composed of carbohydrates, water, fats and proteins, which can be eaten or drunk by humans or animals for nutrition or very important aspect for life. Food products are often a target of adulteration while supply chains usually deal with perishable products that could be harmful to consumers if they are not managed properly. Economic adulteration is a long term problem affecting the food industry. Adulteration in food has been a concern since the beginning of civilization, as it not only decreases the quality of food products but also results in a number of ill effects on health. Food adulteration involves the infusion of useless, harmful, unnecessary substances to food which decreases the quality of food. The problems of adulteration makes the food items used in our daily life unsafe and unhygienic for use due to poor handling. Adulteration in food items can cause tremendous affect on health without our knowledge. If we tend to actively participate in these changes then we can bring about a healthy and non venturous future for the upcoming generations.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Immobilized enzymes find use in a number of biotechnological products with applications in diagnostics, bio affinity chromatography, and biosensors, and in the food industry.
Abstract: The “immobilized enzymes” are the enzymes physically confined or localized in a certain defined region of space with retention of their catalytic activities which can be used repeatedly and continuously. Enzyme immobilization provides an excellent base for increasing availability of enzyme to the substrate with greater turnover over a considerable period of time. Immobilized enzymes are preferred over their free counterpart due to their prolonged availability that reduces redundant downstream and purification processes. The enzymes can be attached to the support by interactions ranging from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages to stable covalent bonds. The choice of the most appropriate immobilization technique depends on the nature of the enzyme and the carrier. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. The industrial applications of immobilised enzymes are progressively increasing. Immobilized enzymes find use in a number of biotechnological products with applications in diagnostics, bio affinity chromatography, and biosensors. Immobilised enzymes find wide applications in the food industry. With these immobilised enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups, lactose free milk, clarified and debittered juices and wines. Immobilised enzymes can be employed for the production of different active packaging material like oxygen scavenging, anti-microbial films. However, commercialization of immobilized enzymes is still at a slower pace because of their costs and storage problems. Research should be focused to overcome the current limitations related to immobilization techniques, so as to expand the horizon for all-round application. In future, immobilized enzymes are going to play a vital role in various industries including pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food and fuel.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of major insects of stored food grains causes the qualitative as well as quantitative losses in cereals, food legumes and oilseeds during the storage.
Abstract: Insects are the major threat for causing the post-harvest losses in stored food grains. It causes the qualitative as well as quantitative losses in cereals, food legumes and oilseeds during the storage. To reduce the losses caused by insects, it is necessary to know the type of insects occurred in specific food grains. Damage caused by insect infestation in stored food grains affects the processing quality as well as reduced the nutritional quality. This article represents an overview of major insects of stored food grains.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Critically on the role and use of Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on flower production of commercial crops and various factors contributing to the efficacy of plant growth regulators are summarized.
Abstract: The plant growth regulators consist of a large group of naturally occurring or synthetically produced organic chemicals and considered as helping tool in the modern production system of flowering plants. Plant growth regulators are being used by the commercial growers of ornamental plants as a part of cultural practice. Plant growth regulators have quicker impact on vegetative as well as flower yield of flowering crops. Among them, Gibberellic Acid (GA3) plays important role in flower production, quality and yield of the flower crops. The Gibberellic Acid (GA3) is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound and a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development. GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water. The production of flower with good quality flowers has greater importance. Their exogenous application helps to improve the different economically important and market desirable characteristics of flower plants. As it have various advantages like less time consuming to treat the plant and environment friendly. Use of growth regulators in flowering crops must be specific their action and toxicologically and environmentally safe. The physiological activities of flowering crops regulate by the application of growth regulators like GA3 has finally affect the growth and flower production in flowering crops. There are various factors contributing to the efficacy of plant growth regulators among them the method of application plays a key role in determining the effectiveness of plant growth regulators, as they can be effective if properly absorbed by plants. The physiological activities of flowering crops regulate by the application of growth regulators and finally affect the growth and flower production in flowering crops. In this review, we have summarised critically on the role and use of Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on flower production of commercial crops.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Wastewater generated from households is categorised in to two types, greywater and black water, greywater constituting the largest flow. Greywater refers to the household wastewater generated from showers, washing machines and bathroom sinks excluding toilet wastes and that it has low pathogenic and organic contaminants. The greywater from residential apartment accounts for 50 – 70 per cent. The composition of greywater varies greatly according to its origin (i.e., bathroom, laundry or kitchen greywater) and is influenced by the water quality of the locality. A variety of contaminants including acidic and alkaline substances, suspended and dissolved solids, fats, oil and grease, heavy metals, synthetic chemicals and pathogenic organisms are likely to be present in greywater. The organic fractions in greywater is around 30 per cent, while the nutrient fraction constitute 9 – 20 per cent. Heavy metals, xenobiotic compounds, nitrates, phosphates, quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATS) were reported as contaminants in greywater. Most of these originate from body lotions, hair dyes and make-up materials. The presence of these compounds could harm ecosystems if not properly treated and disposed. The greywater needs to be treated and reused for the various household purposes, other than direct consumption.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) is a technology that changes the gas concentration in the package around the produce for shelf life enhancement and preservation of the food quality as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Freshly harvested Fruits and vegetables are susceptible to pathogenic organisms owing to increased respiration rate after harvesting. With the help of various preservation techniques, respiration rate of fresh agricultural commodity can be reduced. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a technology that changes the gas concentration in the package around the produce for shelf life enhancement and preservation of the food quality. Extensive research has been conducted in this field during the last two decades. Modified atmosphere packaging uses three main gases such as oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) to modify the atmosphere within the package. Concentration of gases depends on the type of fresh produce being packed. MAP aids in increasing the shelf-life of commodities from many days to many weeks as compared to conventional storage system. MAP reduces physiological injury, disorder, weight loss, fungal growth and pathological deterioration.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of area specific mineral mixture supplementation on milk yield, reproductive performance and economic of dairy cattle for a period of 120 days was evaluated in four villages of Dima Hasao district of Assam.
Abstract: Nutrients requirement plays a very crucial role in regulating biological systems, immunological, health, lactation and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of area specific mineral mixture supplementation on milk yield, reproductive performance and economic of dairy cattle for a period of 120 days. Experimental animals were selected randomly from four villages of Dima Hasao district of Assam. Twenty lactating crossbred cattle (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 milch cows/group) viz., treatment (T2-supplement of 50gm mineral mixture/cattle/day) and control (T1-no supplementation) in a completely randomized designed. Results revealed significant (P

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review article focuses on etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and management practices (physical, cultural, biological & chemical control measures) that are used in management of this disease.
Abstract: Solanaceous crops play an important role in human diet and the economy of nations. They are also called as “Nightshades”. This family is distributed throughout the world in all continents except Antarctica. Solanaceae family consists of 98 genera and 2700 species, with greater habitat, morphological and ecological diversity. The family Solanaceae includes number of commonly cultivated species. Most important genus of the family Solanaceae is “Solanum”, which includes Potato, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli and Capsicum, that are used as food. They can grow in several conditions ranging from tropics to sub-tropics. In this diverse climatic conditions they are infested by several diseases, one among them is bacterial wilt caused by bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum (most damaging plant pathogen). Ralstonia solanacearum has been reported to conquer 450+ plant species belonging to 54 different botanical families, the most susceptible hosts being solanaceous crops. Potato, tomato, brinjal and chilli are mostly affected by this bacterial wilt. Poor seed systems were a major contributor to the extensive spread, high incidence and high prevalence of this devastating disease. This review article focuses on etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and management practices (physical, cultural, biological & chemical control measures) that are used in management of this disease.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Leaf curl and early blight were most serious diseases of the crop out of five commonly occurring diseases.
Abstract: Tomato is one of the most preferable and extensively grown vegetables in India as well as in Chhattisgarh. The tomato plant is infected with many diseases in its life but they do not occur simultaneously and their development varies with place and season. Therefore a study was undertaken in rabi season of three consecutive years (2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17) at Horticulture Instruction cum Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Raipur to know the prevalent diseases of tomato, their occurrence pattern and extent of infection. Five diseases viz. leaf curl, mosaic, tomato spotted wilt, early blight and collar rot were observed to infect the crop during the investigation. Under Raipur situations the first occurrence of leaf curl, collar rot, mosaic, early blight and tomato spotted wilt were recorded in November, December, December–January, January and January–February, respectively. Leaf curl and early blight were most serious diseases of the crop out of five commonly occurring diseases.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors emphasize the use and production of food crops that can withstand the on-going changes to the climate, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions around the globe that are at a greater risk of food insecurity.
Abstract: Climate change directly or indirectly influences all economics aspects, but agriculture is among the sectors which are most sensitive and inherently vulnerable to climate. The impacts of increased temperature from global warming and changes in rainfall patterns resulting from climate change are expected to reduce agricultural production and put further pressure on marginal land. Climate change and especially increase in ambient temperatures will reduce the yields of major cereal crops especially Rice-wheat. Hence, to achieve our goals of food security, we need to emphasize the use and production of food crops that can withstand the on-going changes to the climate, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions around the globe that are at a greater risk of food insecurity. There are key factors that significantly impact to mitigate stress conditions of the climate, i.e. short duration crop, value added weather services, genotype with higher per day yield potential, weather linked agricultural insurance etc.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Antioxidant is any substance that delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule as discussed by the authors. It can be found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables, including vegetables.
Abstract: Antioxidant is any substance that delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule. It can be found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. The role of antioxidants in foods is to retard or control oxidation. The process of autoxidation and development of rancidity in foods involves a free radical chain mechanism via initiation, propagation and termination steps. While radicals are produced in the ‘initiation’ step, they react with unsaturated fatty acids by abstracting a hydrogen atom from a site which requires the least energy that is the allylic or diallylic position in the ‘propagation’ steps. The reactions in the propagation step make up a chain reaction until a ‘termination’ reaction occurs. Due to high stability and low volatility, it helps to maintain the level of nutrients, the texture, colour, taste, freshness, functionality, aroma, and appeal to consumers such as the older person. Various antioxidants found in food viz. natural antioxidants, synthetic antioxidants, dietary antioxidant, endogenous antioxidant play an important role in preservation of food. Vitamin C, Vitamin E, α-carotene, Lycopene, Polyphenol etc. is main sources of antioxidants. They may be present in foods as endogenous factors or may be added to preserve their lipid components from quality deterioration. The most widely used antioxidants in foods include butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), propyl gallate (PG) and tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ). These antioxidants may be used at 200 ppm in bulk oils and at 200 ppm, based on the lipid content of other foods. The benefits of antioxidants include whole foods and beverages (e.g., acai berry, gogi berry, green tea) as well as isolated substances sold primarily as dietary supplements (e.g., vitamin C, lycopene, selenium) or added to foods (e.g., vitamin E). It reduces the risk of developing certain diseases such as; cancer, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis etc.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of coating materials on physicochemical properties of button mushroom was analyzed and the physicochemical responses like weight loss, shrinkage ratio, water activity, color variation, microbial load and free radical scavenging activity were assessed.
Abstract: Button mushroom were coated by dipping in a coating solution for a period of 75s, formulated by dissolving a combination of apple peel powder and CMC into distilled water. A total of nine different combinations with three levels of apple peel powder concentration (1.0, 1.2 and 1.4%w/v) and three levels of CMC concentration (1.2, 1.5 and 1.8%w/v) were used to prepare the coating solution. To analyse the effect of coating materials on physicochemical properties of button mushroom, the physicochemical responses like weight loss, shrinkage ratio, water activity, color variation, microbial load and free radical scavenging activity were assessed. The higher concentration of apple peel powder was resulting in degradation of colour of coated sample during storage due to anthocyanin content of apple peel powder. The moderate concentration of apple peel powder (1.2% w/v) with high level of CMC concentration (1.8% w/v) were found to be the best combination of coating materials which increased the shelf life of button mushroom upto 5 days along with retaining the quality attributes closest to the fresh sample.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present status of RFS, biochemical mechanism invention, resistant source of cultivars, and management of false smut in rice are summarized.
Abstract: False smut of rice caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke), perfect sexual stage Villosiclava virens. Rice False Smut (RFS) early know as a minor disease but this time it is very severe in the majority of ricegrowing areas around the world, as epidemics form. The disease incidence ranged from 585% and major grain yield loss of 0.2% to 49% respectively in terms reduction in quality as well as quantity threatens food safety due to its production of mycotoxin. After flowering, its symptoms are appeared when the fungus transforms into globose structures or yellowed carbonaceous masses of individual grains unfit for consumption. The infection cycle and invasion mechanism, including the primary and secondary source of RFS infection involved different factors affecting for invention mechanisms of disease occurrence, including the infection time and pathway. Due to knowledge of epidemiology and invention mechanisms, resistance source, disease aggravates, proper management strategies needed to be framed to control the false smut disease. Improvement in completing the management source of false smut needs more emphasis. This review summarizes the present status of RFS, biochemical mechanism invention, resistant source of cultivars, and management of false smut in rice.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of major abiotic factors such as water pH and hardness on the biological processes of fish like growth, survival, reproductive performance and embryology has been discussed.
Abstract: The success of any aquaculture endeavour broadly depends on water quality. Water quality determines to a great extent the success or failure of aquaculture operation. Optimum water quality is considered necessary for any aquaculture operation as it influences the productivity of production system. In the present review, the role of major abiotic factors such as water pH and hardness on the biological processes of fish like growth, survival, reproductive performance and embryology has been discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These microbial metabolites can be used as a substitute for chemical fungicides and paved way for its use in sustainable agriculture as biopesticides.
Abstract: Biological control of plant diseases through microbial metabolites is an eco-friendly and effective means of reducing or mitigating crop losses. Among these microbial metabolites, antibiotics produced by different bacteria and fungi are now proving to be a new source of potential biopesticides. Various actinomycetes like Streptomyces, Actinoplanes, Actinomadura, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Streptoverticillium and Spirillospora, bacteria belonging to the genera Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Serratia and a few fungal genera such as Ampelomyces, Aspergillus, Coniothyrium, Gliocladium, Laetisaria, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Sporodesmia, Talaromyces, Tilletiopsis, Trichoderma, Trichothecium and non-pathogenic Fusarium are prolific producers of secondary metabolites which at low concentrations are lethal to the growth or metabolic activities of other microorganisms. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, pyocyanin, 2,4diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, pyrrolnitrin, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, zwittermicin a 14, kurstakin, azole compound, ammonia, wuyiencin, viridin, trichodermin, 6-pentyl-2h-pyran-2-one, gliovirin, gliotoxin, harzianopyridone, harzianolide, massoilactone and d-decanolactone, viridepyronone, koningins, t22 azaphilone, t39 butenolide, volatile compounds and trichothecin are some of the metabolites which have been used in plant disease control. These microbial metabolites can be used as a substitute for chemical fungicides and paved way for its use in sustainable agriculture as biopesticides.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Among the various methods discussed, Nile red method offers a high throughput technique for rapid screening of high neutral lipid producing microalgae and non-conventional methods are described.
Abstract: The current rising demand for energy, global warming, and depletion of fossil fuels have led to increased consideration of alternate renewable biofuel sources. Microalgae serve as an excellent feedstock for biofuel production. Many qualitative and quantitative methods are available for lipid estimation from microalgae. In this review, we describe the various lipid estimation methods. Among the various methods discussed viz., conventional, and non-conventional methods, Nile red method offers a high throughput technique for rapid screening of high neutral lipid producing microalgae.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A field experiment was conducted at research and demonstration block of Research Institute on Organic Farming, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru during 2017-2018 to study the combined effect of different sources of organic manures and decomposers on growth, yield and quality parameters of Chilli fruits.
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at research and demonstration block of Research Institute on Organic Farming (RIOF), UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru during 2017-2018 to study the combined effect of different sources of organic manures and decomposers on growth, yield and quality parameters of chilli fruits. The experiment was laid out on Factorial Randomized Block Design with 12 treatments and replicated thrice. Irrespective of the decomposers treatments, application of vermicompost on N equivalent basis had recorded significantly higher growth parameters viz., plant height, leaf area, leaf area index and total dry matter accumulation (82.76 and 87.37 cm at harvest, 868.68 and 903.97 cm2 plant-1 at 90 DAT, 1.45 and 1.51 at 90 DAT, 32.43 and 36.33 g plant-1 at harvest during 2017 and 2018 season) and quality parameters viz., ascorbic acid, capsaicin content, oleoresin quantity and TSS content (120.89 and 125.28 mg 100 g-1, 10.77 and 11.37 per cent, 63.56 and 66.86 per cent and 3.49 and 3.29 0Brix) during 2017 and 2018 season of Chilli fruits as compared to application of FYM, poultry manure and sheep manure. Irrespective of organic manures treatments, jeevamrutha application had recorded significantly higher plant height (86.16 and 91.05 cm at harvest), leaf area (904 and 941.73 cm2 plant-1 at 90 DAT), leaf area index (1.51 and 1.57 at 90 DAT), total dry matter accumulation (33.76 and 37.89 g plant-1), ascorbic acid (124.26 and 129.08 mg 100 g-1), capsaicin content (11.07 and 11.70 per cent), oleoresin quantity (65.46 and 69.66 per cent), TSS content (3.63 and 3.43 0Brix), N content (2.08 and 2.13 per cent), P (0.35 and 0.39 per cent) content and K content (2.41 and 2.40 per cent) as compared to application of microbial consortia and NCOF-decomposer during both Seasion.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest foliar sprays of only gibberellic acid (combine with different chemicals with various concentrations at the different developmental stages, increases both quality and yield in grapes.
Abstract: Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is one in every of the most precious fruit plants of temperate regions, but it is successfully grown in tropical and sub-tropical agro-climatic situations. This review is undertaken to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid on the Quality and yield of grapes. The plant hormones are extraordinarily essential agents inside the integration of developmental activities. GA3 is also called gibberellic acid, but the term gibberellic is often used in describing all gibberellins. Active gibberellins show many physiological effects, each depending on the type of gibberellin present in the grape plant. This review Results suggest foliar sprays of only gibberellic acid (combine with different chemicals) with various concentrations at the different developmental stages, increases both quality and yield in grapes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The on farm trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of conventional and novel insecticides against brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), in rice during kharif 2017 and 2018 and revealed that all the treatments were effective for BPH management than control.
Abstract: The on farm trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of conventional and novel insecticides against brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), in rice during kharif 2017 and 2018. All the treatments were effective for BPH management than control. The results of the first year study revealed that the application of Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 100 ml ha-1 was found superior by registering lower population of BPH (4.70/ hill) followed by Flonicamid 50 WG @ 150 g ha-1 with 5.67 BPH/hill after 7 days after spray. However, during the second year trial conducted on different insecticides revealed that BPH population was recorded lowest i.e., 3.60 per hill with the application of Buprofezin 25 SC @ 1000 ml ha-1 after 10 days after spray. The effect of this insecticide application was also resulted in the highest grain yield (74.51 q/ha) and maximum benefit cost ratio (6.09).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Different postharvest technologies, processing and convenience food products prepared from millets are reviewed to examine the potentials of production, processing, and using another prospective food sources to end the poverty and hunger.
Abstract: Millets play an important role in nutritional diet in many regions of the world. Despite the fact that millets are nutritionally better than other cereals, their involvement as food in diet is still generally limited to the poor and conventional people. Millets are good source of carbohydrates, energy and protein, fat iron, calcium and dietary fiber, which helps to prevent from many diseases like diabetes, cataract genesis and cardiovascular diseases. The environmental changes, water shortage, population increment, decreasing yields of major cereals, present a challenge to nutritionists and researchers to examine the potentials of production, processing and using another prospective food sources to end the poverty and hunger. The present paper reviews different postharvest technologies, processing and convenience food products prepared from millets.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A field experiment entitled studies on weed management and phosphorus fertilization in clusterbean was conducted consecutively during kharif 2015 and 2016 at Instructional Farm (Agronomy), Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A field experiment entitled studies on weed management and phosphorus fertilization in clusterbean was conducted consecutively during kharif 2015 and 2016 at Instructional Farm (Agronomy), Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur. The test crop (Clusterbean) was growing with eight weed management treatment in main plots [pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 as Pre emergence (PE), pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 as PE + hand weeding (HW) 30 DAS, pendimethalin + imazethapyr 0.8 kg ha-1 PE, pendimethalin + imazethapyr 0.8 kg ha-1 PE + HW 30 DAS, imazethapyr + imazamox 0.05 kg ha-1 at 15 DAS, imazethapyr + imazamox 0.05 kg ha-1 at 15 DAS + HW 30 DAS, HW at 15 & 30 DAS and weedy check] and four phosphorus (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) levels in sub plots. Among different weed control treatments, hand weeding at 15 & 30 DAS, pre-emergence pendimethalin + imazethapyr (RM) 0.8 kg ha-1 PE + HW 30 DAS and post-emergence imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) 0.05 kg ha-1 15 DAS+HW 30 DAS were most effective in respect of reducing weed density, weed biomass, nutrient removal by weed and to promote yield and quality of clusterbean as compared to rest of other weed control treatments. Highest seed yield (1126 kg ha-1) and halum yield of clusterbean were observed in hand weeding at 15 & 30 DAS but maximum net return (Rs. 48125/-) was recorded in pendimethalin + imazethapyr (RM) 0.8 kg ha-1 PE + HW 30 DAS followed by imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) 0.05 kg ha-1 and two hand weeding at 15 & 30 DAS. Further, they were also found responsible for highest uptake of N, P and K by clusterbean crop and lowest uptake of these plant nutrients by weed plants. Application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 recorded significantly higher clusterbean yield and uptake of N, P and K by clusterbean crop and lowest uptake by weed plant sover rest of the treatments during both years of experimentation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil and foliar supplementation of nitrogen, boron and salicylic acid on growth and yield of cucumber in alfisols of Konkan (M.S.) and revealed that the treatment receiving the application of recommended dose of fertilizer was recorded the highest fruit yield.
Abstract: The field experiment was conducted to evaluate the “Effect of soil and foliar supplementation of nitrogen, boron and salicylic acid on growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in alfisols of Konkan (M.S.)” at Research and Education Farm, Department of Agricultural Botany, College of Agriculture, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri (M.S.) during the Summer season of 2018. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) comprising ten treatment combinations replicated thrice, where the effect of soil and foliar supplementation of nitrogen, boron and salicylic acid either alone or in combinations applied along with the recommended dose of fertilizers (135:60:30 NPK kg ha-1) and an absolute control (to judge the fate of native nutrients) were studied. The study further revealed that the treatment receiving the application of recommended dose of fertilizer (135:60:30 kg ha-1) + Foliar spray of nitrogen through urea (1%) + Soil application of boron through borax @ 2 kg ha-1+ Foliar spray of salicylic acid (0.2%) was recorded the highest fruit yield (231.22 q ha-1) and yield attributing characters like number of fruits per vine (7.00) and weight of fruit i.e., 1.98 kg per vine as well as growth parameters viz. vine length (407.00 cm) and number of branches per vine (14.22) of Cucumber in alfisols of Konkan (M.S.).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a study was conducted to determine the optimum level of substitution of carotene rich pumpkin powder (10%) in the formulation and to assess the quality of cookies.
Abstract: They are usually made cookies with wheat flour which contains a limited amount of β-carotene which is a precursor of vitamin A. Pumpkin is a rich source of β-carotene, which is responsible for its yellow or orange colour. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum level of substitution of carotene rich pumpkin powder (10%) in the formulation and to assess the quality of cookies. The prepared pumpkin powder was assessed for proximate parameters. Cookies were prepared by replacing wheat flour with pumpkin powder at different levels (viz. 10%, and 20%) and were assessed for their proximate, texture and sensory parameters. Pumpkin powder incorporated cookies contained 3.20% moisture, 12.43% protein, 1.99% ash, 2.79% fibre, and 36.80 µg /100 g of total carotene (on dry basis). Sensory evaluation indicated that cookies with pumpkin powder incorporated at the level of 10% was found to be more acceptable. Substitution beyond 10% affected the colour and overall acceptability of the final product. Adding pumpkin powder not only increases the nutritive value of cookies, but also brings about a value addition to pumpkin.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conducted an investigation in three districts of Andhra Pradesh viz., Chittoor (from Rayalaseema region), East Godavari (from Coastal region) and Srikakulam (from North coastal region) during 2016-18.
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out in three districts of Andhra Pradesh viz., Chittoor (from Rayalaseema region), East Godavari (from Coastal region) and Srikakulam (from North Coastal region) during 2016-18. Manifest changes through SHGs among the women entrepreneurs help to discover changes occurred among respondents after joining in SHGs. It will indicates the significant changes occurred among women entrepreneurs in the selected components viz., annual income, productive working days, monthly saving, monthly expenditure, debt status, employment generation, prevalence of bonded labour, dependency on local informal money lenders, social status, type of house, domestic assets, mode of transport, skills in paraprofessional work, awareness about institutional financial transactions, composition of diet, priority for children education, social recognition, communication network, access to credit and livestock assets after joining in SHG.

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TL;DR: This review contains the work of the scientists who have cultivated different strawberry cultivars in different climatic regions under different environmental conditions and found the best results.
Abstract: The Strawberry has wide diversity and it performs variously in different agro climatic conditions. Hence, evaluation and characterisation of different cultivars needs to be done. What is the effect on growth, yield and fruit quality if it is cultivated in different areas under polytunnels and open environment. Many Researchers have done a great work in evaluating the cultivars that are more suitable to their region which gives the best yield, best fruit quality and best plant growth. This review contains the work of the scientists who have cultivated different strawberry cultivars in different climatic regions under different environmental conditions and found the best results.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors have demonstrated dyeing of silk and cotton fabric with the pigment extracted through various methods from two ornamentals, marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) and nasturtium (Tropeolum majus L.)
Abstract: The present study demonstrated dyeing of silk and cotton fabric with the pigment extracted through various methods from two ornamentals, marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) and nasturtium (Tropeolum majus L.) Marigold creates the colour range from yellow to orange whereas for nasturtium off white to purple. The yield of extracted dye was found to be superior (6.24% and 4.48%) in pre-treatment of marigold and nasturtium petal respectively, with Ethanol 50% and under 6 min of microwave interval. To perform the dyeing process two different types of colourless mordants have been used viz. alum and stannous chloride. After scouring, mordanting and dyeing the fabrics were evaluated for colour measurements in HunterlabD25LT Chroma Meter for L* a* and b* values. The L* value were found to be superior when the fabrics were treated with alum. The highest L* value (85.78) was obtained in T15 i.e., pre-treatment of 70% HCl, 6 minute MW interval time and alum mordant in marigold. In nasturtium dyed silk fabric highest L*value (72.84) was found with the T16 treatment (70% EtOH + 6 min MW interval time + stannous chloride).The increased a* value was found with stannous chloride mordant. Through the strip test the tensile strength has been analysed. The highest streanth (412.16 g/m2 and 194.66 g/m2) was found in T1 (EtOH 50% + 4 min MW interval + alum) in marigold dyed silk and cotton fabric respectively. The stability of colour hue for the dyed sample after washing with standard soap with manual rubbing showed good in fastness properties and a little colour loss.

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TL;DR: In this article, a dryer that never subjects the food product to shear force and damaging temperature was developed and evaluated by drying potato puree in a pilot plant, Department of Processing and Food Engineering.
Abstract: The paper aims to develop a dryer that never subjects the food product to shear force and damaging temperature. The study showed that dehydrated potato products obtained using hot air dryers have a pronounced tendency to discolor to a grayish brown. Therefore, the present study aims to develop and evaluate a pilot-scale refractance based system for dehydration of potato. The prototype was developed in Pilot plant, Department of Processing and Food Engineering, PAU and evaluated by drying potato puree. The minimally processed potatoes were unblanched and hot water blanched for different blanching times (3, 4, and 5min) and immersed in a 0.2% potassium metabisuphate (KMS) solution for 15 min. After pretreatment, the potatoes were processed into a puree and a known amount of distilled water was added to the puree to achieve desired Total soluble solid (TSS) levels i.e. 8, 10, and 12oBrix. The drying experiments were carried out at varying temperatures 70, 80, and 90 oC. It was observed that the physical properties of potato flakes were significantly affected by TSS, blanching time, and drying temperature (p<0.05). It was observed that the developed prototype when used for drying potato puree maintained better quality potato flakes.

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TL;DR: In this article, a holistic approach based on usage of all possible sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner is considered as alternative source to maintain soil fertility and plant nutrient supply for sustaining the desired crop productivity.
Abstract: The indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides along with improper nutrient management is deleterious to the plant health, environment and human being who consume them. The quality attributes of different fruits are badly affected due to indiscriminate application of inorganic agro-chemicals which results in quality deterioration with less consumer preference and low returns to the growers. It also causes soil health deterioration and disturbs the soil microorganisms. Such practices are also common among the fruit growers. Due to these practices, the plants also become susceptible to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, it is a holistic approach based on usage of all possible sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner is considered as alternative source to maintain soil fertility and plant nutrient supply for sustaining the desired crop productivity.