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JournalISSN: 0006-3185

The Biological Bulletin 

About: The Biological Bulletin is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Sperm. It has an ISSN identifier of 0006-3185. Over the lifetime, 8263 publication(s) have been published receiving 245538 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Biological Bulletin & The Biological bulletin.
Topics: Population, Sperm, Arbacia, Sea urchin, Metamorphosis
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mercuric bromphenol blue reaction as used for development of protein spots on filter paper has been found to be applicable to the cytological staining of proteins, allowing good differentiation of structures often difficult to observe.
Abstract: 1. The mercuric bromphenol blue reaction as used for development of protein spots on filter paper has been found to be applicable to the cytological staining of proteins.2. The optimum procedure is identical in detail with that described by Kunkel and Tiselius for filter paper spots, except that a neutral aqueous solution is substituteed for ammonia vapor in the final color development.3. The sharp and intense staining of protein permits good differentiation of structures often difficult to observe, such as cilia, spindle elements, regions of spindle fiber attachment to chromosomes and "lamp brush" chromosomes.4. The procedure is specific for proteins and those peptides which are not removed in the washing procedure.5. The preparations stained by this procedure follow the Beer and Lambert Laws in microspectrophotometric measurements. The absorption maximum is at 610 millimicrons.6. Basic proteins bind the dye under the conditions of the method even when Hg is omitted. Other proteins bind the dye by coupli...

1,019 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Giulio Tononi1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The integrated information theory starts from phenomenology and makes use of thought experiments to claim that consciousness is integrated information, and the quantity of consciousness corresponds to the amount of integrated information generated by a complex of elements; the quality of experience is specified by the set of informational relationships generated within that complex.
Abstract: The integrated information theory (IIT) starts from phenomenology and makes use of thought experi- ments to claim that consciousness is integrated information. Specifically: (i) the quantity of consciousness corresponds to the amount of integrated information generated by a complex of elements; (ii) the quality of experience is spec- ified by the set of informational relationships generated within that complex. Integrated information () is defined as the amount of information generated by a complex of elements, above and beyond the information generated by its parts. Qualia space (Q) is a space where each axis represents a possible state of the complex, each point is a probability distribution of its states, and arrows between points represent the informational relationships among its elements generated by causal mechanisms (connections). Together, the set of informational relationships within a complex constitute a shape in Q that completely and univo- cally specifies a particular experience. Several observations concerning the neural substrate of consciousness fall natu- rally into place within the IIT framework. Among them are the association of consciousness with certain neural systems rather than with others; the fact that neural processes un- derlying consciousness can influence or be influenced by neural processes that remain unconscious; the reduction of consciousness during dreamless sleep and generalized sei- zures; and the distinct role of different cortical architectures in affecting the quality of experience. Equating conscious- ness with integrated information carries several implications for our view of nature.

929 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A series of arctic and tropical mammals and birds at Point Barrow, Alaska and in Panama was subjected to various air temperatures in a respiration chamber where the heat production was determined by oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production.
Abstract: A series of arctic and tropical mammals and birds at Point Barrow, Alaska (lat. 71° N.) and in Panama (lat. 9° N.) was subjected to various air temperatures in a respiration chamber where the heat production was determined by oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production. The larger arctic mammals and birds showed no increase in metabolism at — 30° C. and from observations on sleeping animals it is probable that their zone of thermoneutrality extends to — 40° C. or — 50° C. The smaller arctic species show a high critical temperature and the tropical species even higher. Metabolic heat production increases rapidly with lowering of the temperature in a tropical mammal or bird, and slowly in an arctic animal. It can be shown theoretically that in a thermoregulated system with a fixed basal energy level and variable insulation the critical gradient is proportional to the maximal insulation and the basal energy level.In a large series of experiments including our tropical and arctic animals, and all animals ...

732 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: I think it probable that some of the dove's instincts include an element which is even a tropism as described by Loeb, but with few if any exceptions among the instincts of doves, this reflex action constitufes only a part of each instinct in which it is present.
Abstract: The overt behavior of adult animals occurs largely in rather definite chains and cycles, and it has been held that these are merely chain reflexes. Many years of study of the behavior of animals-studies especially of the blond ring-dove (Turtur risorius) and other pigeons-have convinced me that instinctive behavior does not consist of mere chain reflexes; it involves other factors which it is the purpose of this article to describe. I do not deny that innate chain reflexes constitute a considerable part of the instinctive equipment of doves. Indeed, I think it probable that some of the dove's instincts include an element which is even a tropism as described by Loeb. But with few if any exceptions among the instincts of doves, this reflex action constitufes only a part of each instinct in which it is present. E1ach instinct involves an element of appetite, or aversion, or both. An appetite (or appetence, if this term may be used with purely behavioristic meaning), so far as externally observable, is a state of agitation which continues so long as a certain stimulus, which may be called the appeted stimulus, is absent. When the appeted stimulus is at length received it stimulates a consummatory reaction, after which the appetitive behavior ceases and is succeeced by a state of relative rest. An aversion (example 7, p. Ioo) is a state of agitation which continues so long as a certain stimulus, referred to as the disturbing stimulus, is present; but which ceases, being replaced by a state of relative rest, when that stimulus has ceased to act on the sense-organs. The state of agitation, in either appetite or aversion, is exhibited externally by increased muscular tension; by static and

691 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Growth curves, when conventionally plotted as length on age, are difficult to compare and classify; the usual mathematical methods of fitting them, such as the logistic and the Gompertz are rather laborious and incon venient for application to large numbers of individuals.
Abstract: Growth curves, when conventionally plotted as length on age, are difficult to compare and classify. Moreover, the usual mathematical methods of fitting them, such as, the logistic and the Gompertz are rather laborious and incon venient for application to large numbers of individuals. Fortunately, for many purposes, it is unnecessary to describe the whole growth curve; for the part below the inflection point is completed early and the part above the inflection point—the “? self-inhibiting― phase, covers the period of life when differences in growth are likely to be most striking. That phase of the growth curve can be appropriately represented by a straight line, the charac teristics of which can be treated statistically, by the following graphic method: Using arithmetic graph paper, with body length represented along both the x axis and along the y axis, plot length at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5@ n on the x axis against length at ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. n + 1, respectively, on the y axis. For several species on which I have found published length data, these points fall along a straight line. This line can be regarded as a sort of transformation of the usual growth curve, and in the following discussion I will call it that. The nine examples given in Figures 1—3are based on average lengths of large samples. When lengths of individual specimens are plotted by this method, a straight-line relationship is still obvious, though the points deviate more widely from the linethan when averages are used. These deviationsdoubtless result from several causes, among which random variations in environmental experience and errors of observation readily suggest themselves. For a few species the published growth data failed to produce a straight line. In these cases, the course of growth may differ from that in other animals; or the observed anomalies may reflect some artifactual effect in the data. Among those species for which this “? transformation― results in a straight line, the growth increments corresponding to equal time intervals, for example, be tween years of age (12 —? 11,13 —? 12,14 —? i@, @l,—? i@), have the following inter relations; where 1,, refers to the length at any given age, i.e., at the end of any given time interval :2

647 citations


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No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
202113
202036
201940
201844
201730
201650