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Journal ArticleDOI

Bengali masculinity and the national-masculine: some conjectures for interpretation.

02 Dec 2011-South Asia Research (South Asia Res)-Vol. 31, Iss: 3, pp 265-279
TL;DR: The notion of national-masculine as a gendered materialisation of the compensatory agency of Bengali masculinity is suggested to occur through the articulation of buddhibal in contrast with bahubal that negotiates with the hegemonic national-Masculine.
Abstract: This article examines how Bengali masculinity has been negotiated between national and ethnic/local notions of identity and suggests a new way of understanding this issue. Within the specific historiography of Bengali masculinity, concerns regarding physical strength, courage and virility of the Bengali male have been central tropes, challenged by the colonially constructed stereotype of the effeminate Bengali. The present article maps mainly nineteenth century discourses regarding Bengali masculinity and focuses on one particular strategy of three, namely, construction of a mode of mythic-historical discourse to reclaim a supposedly more masculine past for Bengali men. This suggests the notion of national-masculine as a gendered materialisation of the compensatory agency of Bengali masculinity. Shown to occur through the articulation of buddhibal in contrast with bahubal that negotiates with the hegemonic national-masculine, this throws new light on the emerging prominence of the bhadralok concept of a sophisticated Bengali gentleman.
Citations
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Dissertation
01 Mar 2019
TL;DR: In this article, Kriesky et al. investigated the relationship between masculinity and violence in the works of three leaders from different ideological positions: Swami Vivekananda, M. S. Golwalkar, and M. K. Gandhi.
Abstract: This thesis enquires into the process of normalisation of violent masculinity and masculinism in India through the use of religion. Masculinism is defined as the presence of excessive masculine values, malecentred view of social relationships and symbolisation of masculine hegemony (Kriesky 2014). This thesis shows the pervasive existence of masculinism across the Indian political spectrum through analysis of the major works of three leaders from different ideological positions – Swami Vivekananda, M. S. Golwalkar, and M. K. Gandhi. These three leaders had very different visions of the future of India; however, this thesis found recurrent connections between masculinity and violence in the works of all three. This link is shown to have been bolstered in the works of all three – even in the ‘non-violent’ teachings of Gandhi – through the use of religion. Religious texts like the Bhagavad Gita, and ideas like karma, dharma, and karma yoga are used to link ideas of masculinity with structural, symbolic violence in the form of caste, class, and racial discrimination. This research found three different forms of religion-influenced masculinity in the works of Vivekananda, Golwalkar, and Gandhi – ascetic masculinity, culinary masculinity and violent masculinity. A feminist rhetorical analysis of the written works of these leaders shows how these religionsanctioned masculinities result in Bourdieusian symbolic violence against women, dalits, and other minority communities in India. All these leaders subscribed to a hegemonic idea of masculinity – virile, upper caste, and heteronormative – with its forms of violence practiced to this day. Vivekananda espoused a spiritual, ascetic form of masculinity, distinctly religious in its aspiration of Hindu conquest. Golwalkar’s political violent masculinity also aimed to re-establish Hindu supremacy in India. The ‘Othering’ of Muslims in Golwalkar’s writings was also a response to Gandhi’s alleged effeminate influence on Hindu masculinity. Ironically, this work shows how despite these allegations, masculinism in Gandhi’s writings resulted in his supporting honour killings and structural forms of violence, like the caste system. The continued relevance of the ideas of these three leaders and the allied prevalence of masculinism is underlined through an analysis of contemporary Indian politics, which shows that all these three forms of masculinities remain relevant. The beef lynchings by Gau Raksha committees, the growing political capital ascribed to celibacy, increasing violence against women and the rising nationalist othering of minority communities are evidence of religiously motivated violent masculinities gaining ground in contemporary India.

41 citations

01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, what it means to become a boy today, how boyhood manifest itself in different contexts, how can we describe fathers and sons in contemporary society, and can we make the invisible boy visi...
Abstract: What does it mean to become a boy today? How does boyhood manifest itself in different contexts? How can we describe fathers and sons in contemporary society? And can we make the invisible boy visi ...

27 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1990
TL;DR: Young as mentioned in this paper argues that normative theory and public policy should undermine group-based oppression by affirming rather than suppressing social group difference, and argues for a principle of group representation in democratic publics and for group-differentiated policies.
Abstract: This book challenges the prevailing philosophical reduction of social justice to distributive justice. It critically analyzes basic concepts underlying most theories of justice, including impartiality, formal equality, and the unitary moral subjectivity. Starting from claims of excluded groups about decision making, cultural expression, and division of labor, Iris Young defines concepts of domination and oppression to cover issues eluding the distributive model. Democratic theorists, according to Young do not adequately address the problem of an inclusive participatory framework. By assuming a homogeneous public, they fail to consider institutional arrangements for including people not culturally identified with white European male norms of reason and respectability. Young urges that normative theory and public policy should undermine group-based oppression by affirming rather than suppressing social group difference. Basing her vision of the good society on the differentiated, culturally plural network of contemporary urban life, she argues for a principle of group representation in democratic publics and for group-differentiated policies. "This is an innovative work, an important contribution to feminist theory and political thought, and one of the most impressive statements of the relationship between postmodernist critiques of universalism and concrete thinking.... Iris Young makes the most convincing case I know of for the emancipatory implications of postmodernism." --Seyla Benhabib, State University of New York at Stony Brook

7,816 citations

Book
01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: The Sublime Object of Ideology as mentioned in this paper explores the political significance of these fantasies of control, linking key psychoanalytical and philosophical concepts to social phenomena such as totalitarianism and racism.
Abstract: In this provocative and original work, Slavoj Zizek takes a look at the question of human agency in a postmodern world. From the sinking of the Titanic to Hitchcock's Rear Window, from the operas of Wagner to science fiction, from Alien to the Jewish Joke, the author's acute analyses explore the ideological fantasies of wholeness and exclusion which make up human society. Zizek takes issue with analysts of the postmodern condition from Habermas to Sloterdijk, showing that the idea of a 'post-ideological' world ignores the fact that 'even if we do not take things seriously, we are still doing them'. Rejecting postmodernism's unified world of surfaces, he traces a line of thought from Hegel to Althusser and Lacan, in which the human subject is split, divided by a deep antagonism which determines social reality and through which ideology operates. Linking key psychoanalytical and philosophical concepts to social phenomena such as totalitarianism and racism, the book explores the political significance of these fantasies of control. In so doing, The Sublime Object of Ideology represents a powerful contribution to a psychoanalytical theory of ideology, as well as offering persuasive interpretations of a number of contemporary cultural formations.

3,644 citations


"Bengali masculinity and the nationa..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Drawing from Lacan and Freud, Zizek (1989) articulates a theory of political signifi ers as performatives which, through becoming sites of phantasmatic investment, effect the power to mobilise identifi cation....

    [...]

  • ...Butler (1993) agrees with Zizek (1989) that political signifi ers, especially those that designate subject positions, do not represent pre-given constituencies, but are empty signs which come to bear phantasmatic investments of various kinds....

    [...]

BookDOI
TL;DR: The Nation and its Peasants and its Outcasts173Ch. 10The National State200Ch. 11Communities and the Nation220Notes241Bibliography263Index273.
Abstract: Preface and AcknowledgmentsCh. 1Whose Imagined Community?3Ch. 2The Colonial State14Ch. 3The Nationalist Elite35Ch. 4The Nation and Its Pasts76Ch. 5Histories and Nations95Ch. 6The Nation and Its Women116Ch. 7Women and the Nation135Ch. 8The Nation and Its Peasants158Ch. 9The Nation and Its Outcasts173Ch. 10The National State200Ch. 11Communities and the Nation220Notes241Bibliography263Index273

2,891 citations

01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that "world outlooks" do not correspond to reality, i.e. do not "correspond to rcalif" (i.e., that the) constitute an illusion, and that they do mal.
Abstract: We commonly call rehgious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, poli1ical ideology, CIC., SO many "world outlooks." Of course, assuming that "C do not live one of these ideologies as !he trulh (e.g. "behc,c" in God, Duty, Justice, CIC. • .), "c admu that I.he ideology we arc di9CUSSmg from a crittcal point of v1cw,cnmming it as the c1hnologist examines the m)'ths of a "primitive society," 1ha1 1hesc "world outlooks" arc largdy imaginary, i c. do not "correspond to rcalif)." Ho,.c,er, while admining Wt !he) do correspond to reality, i.e. that the) constitute an illusion, we admi1 that they do mal.c allusion to reality, and th•1 1hey need only be "in1crprcted" to disco,cr !he reality of the "orld behind their imagina11 rcprcscntauon of that ,.o,ld (ideology = 1/l,,s10,,f •llus-). There arc different types of interpretation, the most famous of which arc the "'"hanim, type, current in the cightccn1h century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and !he "lttrrtfffltu11," interpretation, inaugurated by !he carli

2,799 citations


"Bengali masculinity and the nationa..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This hegemonic authority is exercised through the ideological state apparatus and particularly through mass media (Althusser, 1989)....

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