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MonographDOI

The art of landscape architecture, its development and its application to modern landscape gardening, by Samuel Parsons ... with 48 illustrations.

01 Jan 1915-

AboutThe article was published on 1915-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 1 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Landscape design & Landscape architecture.

Topics: Landscape design (82%), Landscape architecture (75%), Cultural landscape (71%), Landscape planning (70%)

Summary (4 min read)

II

  • There is an evident incongruity in bringing two modes of arranging plantations, so totally different, under the eye at one moment, which distracts, rather than pleases the mind.
  • The postponing of alterations which are recognized as advisable is a dangerous proceeding, also, because existing faults easily lead to the wrong treatment of new features.

And worse still

  • În order to approach properly the consideration of the laying out of any place it is well to go farther than the contour map and secure photographs of features that are characteristic of its scenery, and that may be memoranda to be used in forming a mental picture of what the final scheme should be.
  • "Gardening besides the emotions of beauty by means of regularity, order, proportion, colour, and utility, can raise emotions of grandeur, of sweetness, of gaiety, melancholy, wildness, and even of surprise or wonder.

Reproduced by

  • And it is better to conceal many defects and limitations of the ground by skilfully planned paths and plantations, than to make disproportionate sacrifices to them." .,,. .^,.
  • An intelligent eye must realize that he knows how to manage the scenery along the shores and banks of the Staples, has made a formal garden on just as good lines of its kind as those of the little woodside cottage just described.
  • The trouble is, that the designers of their country places are oppressed, perhaps unconsciously, at the present day by a false kind of erudition and their work too often lacks personality.
  • Just the Httle grove, the Bosca, with its rude table and benches and quaint oven in the open made of a few stones, and the herb garden, scarcely anything else Italian, and yet you feel that the owner loves Italy, and remembers Italy, but yet loves America still more with its brave simplicity and its absolutely natural charm.
  • The landscape gardening thus becomes basic and imiversal in its essential quality, and is at the same time full of personality and human feeling.

LOCATION OF BUILDINGS

  • IN several ways the spot where buildings are located should be controlling.
  • Here most of the time the human beings live, the men, women, and children, and their physical needs and comforts should be satisfied and their mental and spiritual desires, for here man abides and finds his home, and if he wanders he returns here, and wants in this spot especially the very best that life can give him.
  • This is the way Humphry Repton expresses the same idea: "However various opinions may be on the choice of a situation for a house, yet there appear to be certain principles on which such choice ought to be founded; and these may be deduced from the following considerations:.
  • The natural character of the surrounding country.
  • The shape of the ground near A Gardener's Cottage at Skylands -A Country Estate in Xew Jersey.

Of Ilk

  • The views from the several apartments ; and Sixthly : Architects' advice is not sufficient, landscape architects should be called in to study the shape of the ground and to select the place where the lawns and shrubbery will make the surroundings of the house most convenient and comfortable and secure the best landscape effect.
  • Again the authors find the contrasting and overlapping of contradictory elements in the use of plants of various kinds that are needed over and in the verandas and porticoes to produce harmony between the house and the adjacent landscape, a sort of interlocking of horticultural and architectural features which can be made to produce charming combinations.
  • A Vandal Lord and Lord Lieutenant of the country conceived the pious design of restoring the church.
  • This does not mean that the trees and shrubs should be allowed to smother the house, for there should be open space, lawns and formal gardens, near the house, and outbuildings, but only that as you approach it from certain directions the roofs should emerge from a mass of foliage.

VI GRASS SPACES

  • They are, as it were, the canvas of nature painting, the playground where the sun disports an element of brightness which sets out the whole landscape.
  • All the little comers and nooks of greensward are included, the glades edged with flowers and planted with trees and shrubs, the grass walks in the gardens and along the boimdaries of plantations, the rides through woodland ways where saddle horse and carriage may find pleasant passage.
  • These grass spaces are the choice spots of the place.
  • It is there that the clouds play with their lights and shadows and the showers make diamond and silver nettings.

I20

  • If the ancients worshipped trees and groves, surely, in the landscape scheme, it should be considered desecration, a treading on holy ground, to unnecessarily destroy greensward that flourishes in a favoured and fitting spot.
  • Next comes the establishment of the proper mechanical condition and the fertility of the soil, possibly the most important of all in the attainment of final success.
  • If stable manure is not available a good substitute for it is decomposed muck dried and pulverized and aerated.
  • This material when dried should contain about 80 per cent, humus with at least 3^p er cent, ammonia.
  • The micro-organisms in the soil feed upon these dead materials, causing an extensive series of decompositions and recombinations.

VII ROADS AND PATHS

  • This is the purpose of roads and paths, and while they should not be unnecessarily multiplied, too many are better than too few.
  • "In a landscape of wide sweep, the form given to the grass plots especially by the enclosing roads must be carefully considered. '.
  • The best form they can take is that of grass or sod gutters which can be made almost imperceptible by keeping the centre of the drive or walk high in relation to the surrounding lawn.

XI GRADING AND SHAPING GROUNDS

  • ON meadows as a rule, here and there, the Httle ups and downs must be levelled, for practical purposes as well as appearance: but larger undulations of the terrain must by no means be unnecessarily disturbed.
  • But there must be no uniformity even in these connexions; if the same sweep be carried all around the bottom of a swell, the same rotundity all around the top of a hollow, though the junction be perfect, yet the art by which it is made is apparent, and art must never appear.
  • ''The style also of every part must be accommodated to the character of the whole, for every piece of ground is distinguished by certain properties: it is either tame or bold, gentle or rude; continued or broken; and if any varieties inconsistent with those properties be obtruded, it has no other effect than to M'caken one idea without raising another.
  • The principles and art of landscape gardening and its evolution in nature and history are the topics the authors are studying.

MAINTENANCE

  • It would seem that love is actually necessary to achieve the greatest results even in growing a plant, but love without knowledge can accomplish little, as many an amateur horticulturist has learned to his cost.
  • There should always be a revealing day by day of a new scene, ever picturesque, always renewing itself by the help of a ceaseless and intelligent maintenance which retains all the essential elements that make landscape gardening grateful and sufficing.
  • Open spaces of grass and bordering plantations with paths and roads running through them are the two divisions the relations of which should be always kept in mind, whether the object be to design a park or a garden, which after all are fundamentally the same, only variations and combinations of the divisions already indicated.

The

  • Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Union College, Isaac W. Jackson, commenced to make this garden in the early thirties of the last century, and his daughter, Mrs. Benedict, still cherishes it with loving care.
  • I doubt not the flowers of that garden sweet Rejoiced in the sound of her gentle feet; I doubt not they felt the spirit that came From her glowing fingers thro' all their frame.'.
  • Prof. Jackson had also the "most delicate artistic feeling and he loved beauty with so true an instinct that one can imagine the very flowers and shrubs which he affectionately tended returning his affection,"-thus testified an old friend at the time of his death.
  • Such a sweet, quiet, stately seclusion-so age long as this has been and I hope will continue to be-cannot exist anywhere else.".

XV

  • PUBLIC PARKS THE problem of creating public parks while, in many respects, the same as that of estates or even of gardens, should always be carefully correlated with the rights and desires of the public.
  • With his natural taste refined by travel and by study, Downing's Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, which was published in 1841, became at once the accepted text-book of rural art in this country, and this book, passing through many editions, and his Rural Essays and other works, are stni classics in this branch of Hterature.
  • The authors want, especially, the greatest possible contrast with the restraining and confining conditions of the town, those conditions which compel us to walk circumspectly, watchfully, jealously, which compel us to look closely on others without sympathy.
  • That the characteristics of this spirit were calmness, which 274 Xan^scape Hrcbitecture stilled and refreshed man; sublimity, which raised him to noble thoughts; tenderness, which, while stirring in the largest and loftiest things, condescends to the lowest : is with the humblest worm and weed as much as in the greatest movements of the elements or the stars.

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Citations
More filters

01 Jan 2012
Abstract: OF DISSERTATION “THE PASTIME OF MILLIONS”: JAMES B. HAGGIN’S ELMENDORF FARM AND THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF PEDIGREE ANIMAL BREEDING, 1897-1920 Called “The Pride of the Bluegrass,” Elmendorf Farm changed the style and substance of commercial pedigree breeding in early twentieth-century America. Between 1897 and 1914, James B. Haggin readily transformed the Kentucky farm first as a nationally preeminent horse stud, famous for its bloodlines and scales, and second as a premier dairy operation, exceptional for its sanitation, science, and size. Here rested the large-scale production of the world’s fanciest Thoroughbreds and finest milk. At the same time, Haggin’s farm reflected a lifestyle that has come to be celebrated and cherished as the ideal Kentucky landscape. A factory-style plant of large scales, of specialization, and vertical integration was disguised with the lavish iconography of portico mansions, rolling lawns, and white-planed fences, behind which million-dollar animals grazed on lush bluegrass. But a crucial, and significant, characteristic of this farm was the wage laborers who performed the back-breaking work. The labor and lives of the farm’s black workers, in particular, shows how Elmendorf helped reinforce a system of labor relations in central Kentucky, one peculiar to horse business and one segmented by race. Ultimately, this study of Elmendorf Farm shows the unforgettable imprint of Haggin’s complex personality, as well as his modern philosophies of business, but it also demonstrates conclusively the fallacy of an acquisitive nature and aggressive impulses in commercial animal breeding. As a powerful financier in the late nineteenth-century, Haggin’s perpetual objective was ever “large economies of scale.” Haggin made and lost fortunes by creating great industrial enterprises, and his Bluegrass stud proved no different—even if his individual actions meant defying the norm and jeopardizing entire industries. This best explains why the world’s greatest breeding and milking farm, in many ways, failed. When Haggin applied a dual logic of industrial and aristocratic expansion to a Kentucky breeding farm, the pedigree industry, however fragile and vulnerable, was pushed to extremes and instability of both horse and milk industries resulted. Those famed marble columns, the remaining evidence of Elmendorf Farm, now stands in a lush Bluegrass field, representing one of the most spectacular failures in modern agricultural history.

40 citations


References
More filters

01 Jan 2012
Abstract: OF DISSERTATION “THE PASTIME OF MILLIONS”: JAMES B. HAGGIN’S ELMENDORF FARM AND THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF PEDIGREE ANIMAL BREEDING, 1897-1920 Called “The Pride of the Bluegrass,” Elmendorf Farm changed the style and substance of commercial pedigree breeding in early twentieth-century America. Between 1897 and 1914, James B. Haggin readily transformed the Kentucky farm first as a nationally preeminent horse stud, famous for its bloodlines and scales, and second as a premier dairy operation, exceptional for its sanitation, science, and size. Here rested the large-scale production of the world’s fanciest Thoroughbreds and finest milk. At the same time, Haggin’s farm reflected a lifestyle that has come to be celebrated and cherished as the ideal Kentucky landscape. A factory-style plant of large scales, of specialization, and vertical integration was disguised with the lavish iconography of portico mansions, rolling lawns, and white-planed fences, behind which million-dollar animals grazed on lush bluegrass. But a crucial, and significant, characteristic of this farm was the wage laborers who performed the back-breaking work. The labor and lives of the farm’s black workers, in particular, shows how Elmendorf helped reinforce a system of labor relations in central Kentucky, one peculiar to horse business and one segmented by race. Ultimately, this study of Elmendorf Farm shows the unforgettable imprint of Haggin’s complex personality, as well as his modern philosophies of business, but it also demonstrates conclusively the fallacy of an acquisitive nature and aggressive impulses in commercial animal breeding. As a powerful financier in the late nineteenth-century, Haggin’s perpetual objective was ever “large economies of scale.” Haggin made and lost fortunes by creating great industrial enterprises, and his Bluegrass stud proved no different—even if his individual actions meant defying the norm and jeopardizing entire industries. This best explains why the world’s greatest breeding and milking farm, in many ways, failed. When Haggin applied a dual logic of industrial and aristocratic expansion to a Kentucky breeding farm, the pedigree industry, however fragile and vulnerable, was pushed to extremes and instability of both horse and milk industries resulted. Those famed marble columns, the remaining evidence of Elmendorf Farm, now stands in a lush Bluegrass field, representing one of the most spectacular failures in modern agricultural history.

40 citations