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Adi Shamir

Bio: Adi Shamir is an academic researcher from Weizmann Institute of Science. The author has contributed to research in topics: Block cipher & Cryptography. The author has an hindex of 94, co-authored 295 publications receiving 77197 citations. Previous affiliations of Adi Shamir include Massachusetts Institute of Technology & École Normale Supérieure.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key.
Abstract: An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences: (1) Couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit keys, since a message can be enciphered using an encryption key publicly revealed by the intented recipient. Only he can decipher the message, since only he knows the corresponding decryption key. (2) A message can be “signed” using a privately held decryption key. Anyone can verify this signature using the corresponding publicly revealed encryption key. Signatures cannot be forged, and a signer cannot later deny the validity of his signature. This has obvious applications in “electronic mail” and “electronic funds transfer” systems. A message is encrypted by representing it as a number M, raising M to a publicly specified power e, and then taking the remainder when the result is divided by the publicly specified product, n, of two large secret primer numbers p and q. Decryption is similar; only a different, secret, power d is used, where e * d ≡ 1(mod (p - 1) * (q - 1)). The security of the system rests in part on the difficulty of factoring the published divisor, n.

14,659 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces.
Abstract: In this paper we show how to divide data D into n pieces in such a way that D is easily reconstructable from any k pieces, but even complete knowledge of k - 1 pieces reveals absolutely no information about D. This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces.

14,340 citations

Book ChapterDOI
23 Aug 1985
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce a novel type of cryptographic scheme, which enables any pair of users to communicate securely and to verify each other's signatures without exchanging private or public keys, without keeping key directories, and without using the services of a third party.
Abstract: In this paper we introduce a novel type of cryptographic scheme, which enables any pair of users to communicate securely and to verify each other’s signatures without exchanging private or public keys, without keeping key directories, and without using the services of a third party. The scheme assumes the existence of trusted key generation centers, whose sole purpose is to give each user a personalized smart card when he first joins the network. The information embedded in this card enables the user to sign and encrypt the messages he sends and to decrypt and verify the messages he receives in a totally independent way, regardless of the identity of the other party. Previously issued cards do not have to be updated when new users join the network, and the various centers do not have to coordinate their activities or even to keep a user list. The centers can be closed after all the cards are issued, and the network can continue to function in a completely decentralized way for an indefinite period.

6,902 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: Simple identification and signature schemes which enable any user to prove his identity and the authenticity of his messages to any other user without shared or public keys are described.
Abstract: In this paper we describe simple identification and signature schemes which enable any user to prove his identity and the authenticity of his messages to any other user without shared or public keys. The schemes are provably secure against any known or chosen message attack if factoring is difficult, and typical implementations require only 1% to 4% of the number of modular multiplications required by the RSA scheme. Due to their simplicity, security and speed, these schemes are ideally suited for microprocessor-based devices such as smart cards, personal computers, and remote control systems.

4,193 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Aug 1990
TL;DR: A new type of cryptanalytic attack is developed which can break the reduced variant of DES with eight rounds in a few minutes on a personal computer and can break any reduced variantof DES (with up to 15 rounds) using less than 256 operations and chosen plaintexts.
Abstract: The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is the best known and most widely used cryptosystem for civilian applications. It was developed at IBM and adopted by the National Bureau of Standards in the mid 1970s, and has successfully withstood all the attacks published so far in the open literature. In this paper we develop a new type of cryptanalytic attack which can break the reduced variant of DES with eight rounds in a few minutes on a personal computer and can break any reduced variant of DES (with up to 15 rounds) using less than 256 operations and chosen plaintexts. The new attack can be applied to a variety of DES-like substitution/permutation cryptosystems, and demonstrates the crucial role of the (unpublished) design rules.

2,494 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces.
Abstract: In this paper we show how to divide data D into n pieces in such a way that D is easily reconstructable from any k pieces, but even complete knowledge of k - 1 pieces reveals absolutely no information about D. This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces.

14,340 citations

Book
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols.
Abstract: From the Publisher: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols; more than 200 tables and figures; more than 1,000 numbered definitions, facts, examples, notes, and remarks; and over 1,250 significant references, including brief comments on each paper.

13,597 citations

Book
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: GAs and Evolution Programs for Various Discrete Problems, a Hierarchy of Evolution Programs and Heuristics, and Conclusions.
Abstract: 1 GAs: What Are They?.- 2 GAs: How Do They Work?.- 3 GAs: Why Do They Work?.- 4 GAs: Selected Topics.- 5 Binary or Float?.- 6 Fine Local Tuning.- 7 Handling Constraints.- 8 Evolution Strategies and Other Methods.- 9 The Transportation Problem.- 10 The Traveling Salesman Problem.- 11 Evolution Programs for Various Discrete Problems.- 12 Machine Learning.- 13 Evolutionary Programming and Genetic Programming.- 14 A Hierarchy of Evolution Programs.- 15 Evolution Programs and Heuristics.- 16 Conclusions.- Appendix A.- Appendix B.- Appendix C.- Appendix D.- References.

12,212 citations

Patent
30 Sep 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a secure content distribution method for a configurable general-purpose electronic commercial transaction/distribution control system, which includes a process for encapsulating digital information in one or more digital containers, a process of encrypting at least a portion of digital information, a protocol for associating at least partially secure control information for managing interactions with encrypted digital information and/or digital container, and a process that delivering one or multiple digital containers to a digital information user.
Abstract: PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To solve the problem, wherein it is impossible for an electronic content information provider to provide commercially secure and effective method, for a configurable general-purpose electronic commercial transaction/distribution control system. SOLUTION: In this system, having at least one protected processing environment for safely controlling at least one portion of decoding of digital information, a secure content distribution method comprises a process for encapsulating digital information in one or more digital containers; a process for encrypting at least a portion of digital information; a process for associating at least partially secure control information for managing interactions with encrypted digital information and/or digital container; a process for delivering one or more digital containers to a digital information user; and a process for using a protected processing environment, for safely controlling at least a portion of the decoding of the digital information. COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

7,643 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Taher Elgamal1
23 Aug 1985
TL;DR: A new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the Diffie-Hellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem that relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields.
Abstract: A new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the Diffie-Hellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields.

7,514 citations