Other affiliations: College of Business Administration
Bio: Beverly Kracher is an academic researcher from Creighton University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Business ethics & Computational trust. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 22 publications receiving 1508 citations. Previous affiliations of Beverly Kracher include College of Business Administration.
01 Jun 2003-International Journal of Human-computer Studies \/ International Journal of Man-machine Studies
TL;DR: The definitions of trust are analyzed, the relevant dimensions of trust for an on-line context are identified, and a definition of trust between people and informational or transactional websites is presented.
Abstract: Trust is emerging as a key element of success in the on-line environment. Although considerable research on trust in the offline world has been performed, to date empirical study of on-line trust has been limited. This paper examines on-line trust, specifically trust between people and informational or transactional websites. It begins by analysing the definitions of trust in previous offline and on-line research. The relevant dimensions of trust for an on-line context are identified, and a definition of trust between people and informational or transactional websites is presented. We then turn to an examination of the causes of on-line trust. Relevant findings in the human-computer interaction literature are identified. A model of on-line trust between users and websites is presented. The model identifies three perceptual factors that impact on-line trust: perception of credibility, ease of use and risk. The model is discussed in detail and suggestions for future applications of the model are presented.
TL;DR: In this article, the similarities and differences in the cognitive moral development of business professionals and graduate business students in two countries, India and the United States, were analyzed and discussed, and Implications for ethics education in graduate business schools and professional associations were considered.
Abstract: This research focuses on the similarities and differences in the cognitive moral development of business professionals and graduate business students in two countries, India and the United States. Factors that potentially influence cognitive moral development, namely, culture, education, sex and gender are analyzed and discussed. Implications for ethics education in graduate business schools and professional associations are considered. Future research on the cognitive moral development of graduate business students and business professionals is recommended.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that ethical principles and rules in e-commerce and brick-and-mortar business are fundamentally the same, but have different manifestations at the most specific level.
Abstract: The speed and degree to which e-commerce is infiltrating the very fabric of our society, faster and more pervasively than any other entity in history, makes an examination of its ethical dimensions critical. Though ethical lag has heretofore hindered our explorations of e-commerce ethics, it is now time to identify and confront them. In this paper we define e-commerce and describe the characteristics that set it apart from traditional brick and-mortar business. We then examine the ethical foundation of e-commerce, focusing on the question, “Is there a special e-commerce ethics?” Our answer is “no.” We support our answer by showing that the current issues in e-commerce ethics and brick-and-mortar business are fundamentally the same, but that e-commerce issues have different manifestations and scope. We then demonstrate that ethical principles and rules in e-commerce and brick-and-mortar business are fundamentally the same, but have different manifestations at the most specific level. We elucidate this point by discussing the use of personal information and the opt-in, opt-out debate. We conclude with a call for research on trust, a key value in the success of e-commerce.
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: A new instrument for use in studying trust of an individual in a given website, whose components are unidimensional and whose constructs show high convergent and discriminant validity is presented.
Abstract: As the use of the web for ecommerce and information access continues to expand, user trust of websites has come under inspection. Empirical study of online trust is constrained by the shortage of high-quality measures of general online trust. The development of such measures is a priority for MIS researchers. This paper presents a new instrument for use in studying trust of an individual in a given website. The instrument was tested with two different websites in an experiment conducted in a controlled setting. The items in the instrument were analyzed using a confirmatory factor analysis with a split-sample approach. This process resulted in an instrument of high reliability whose components are unidimensional and whose constructs show high convergent and discriminant validity.
TL;DR: Users' website trust was significantly explained by users' perceptions of website credibility, ease of use, and risk, and the model showed a statistically strong fit to the data.
Abstract: Health care websites are important to people managing their health. But the quality of the information on health care websites varies, so it's hard for users to decide whether to trust their information. This study develops and tests a model of the factors influencing users' initial trust of a health care website. The factors are perceived credibility, risk, and ease of use. A survey instrument was developed to test the model with 176 participants who interacted with a health care website. It had strong statistical reliability and validity, and the model showed a statistically strong fit to the data. Users' website trust was significantly explained by users' perceptions of website credibility, ease of use, and risk. Ease of use directly predicted trust, and affected trust indirectly through credibility. Credibility was a direct predictor of trust and an indirect predictor of trust through risk. Variance explained by the model was high, 0.73.
01 Jan 1982
Abstract: Introduction 1. Woman's Place in Man's Life Cycle 2. Images of Relationship 3. Concepts of Self and Morality 4. Crisis and Transition 5. Women's Rights and Women's Judgment 6. Visions of Maturity References Index of Study Participants General Index
TL;DR: The Human Side of Enterprise as mentioned in this paper is one of the most widely used management literature and has been widely used in business schools, industrial relations schools, psychology departments, and professional development seminars for over four decades.
Abstract: \"What are your assumptions (implicit as well as explicit) about the most effective way to manage people?\" So began Douglas McGregor in this 1960 management classic. It was a seemingly simple question he asked, yet it led to a fundamental revolution in management. Today, with the rise of the global economy, the information revolution, and the growth of knowledge-driven work, McGregor's simple but provocative question continues to resonate-perhaps more powerfully than ever before. Heralded as one of the most important pieces of management literature ever written, a touchstone for scholars and a handbook for practitioners, The Human Side of Enterprise continues to receive the highest accolades nearly half a century after its initial publication. Influencing such major management gurus such as Peter Drucker and Warren Bennis, McGregor's revolutionary Theory Y-which contends that individuals are self-motivated and self-directed-and Theory X-in which employees must be commanded and controlled-has been widely taught in business schools, industrial relations schools, psychology departments, and professional development seminars for over four decades. In this special annotated edition of the worldwide management classic, Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Senior Research Scientist in MIT's Sloan School of Management and Engineering Systems Division, shows us how today's leaders have successfully incorporated McGregor's methods into modern management styles and practices. The added quotes and commentary bring the content right into today's debates and business models. Now more than ever, the timeless wisdom of Douglas McGregor can light the path towards a management style that nurtures leadership capability, creates effective teams, ensures internal alignment, achieves high performance, and cultivates an authentic, value-driven workplace--lessons we all need to learn as we make our way in this brave new world of the 21st century.
TL;DR: This review considers trust from the organizational, sociological, interpersonal, psychological, and neurological perspectives, and considers how the context, automation characteristics, and cognitive processes affect the appropriateness of trust.
Abstract: Automation is often problematic because people fail to rely upon it appropriately. Because people respond to technology socially, trust influences reliance on automation. In particular, trust guides reliance when complexity and unanticipated situations make a complete understanding of the automation impractical. This review considers trust from the organizational, sociological, interpersonal, psychological, and neurological perspectives. It considers how the context, automation characteristics, and cognitive processes affect the appropriateness of trust. The context in which the automation is used influences automation performance and provides a goal-oriented perspective to assess automation characteristics along a dimension of attributional abstraction. These characteristics can influence trust through analytic, analogical, and affective processes. The challenges of extrapolating the concept of trust in people to trust in automation are discussed. A conceptual model integrates research regarding trust in automation and describes the dynamics of trust, the role of context, and the influence of display characteristics. Actual or potential applications of this research include improved designs of systems that require people to manage imperfect automation.