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Bharat Bhushan

Bio: Bharat Bhushan is an academic researcher from Sharda University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Tribology & Surface roughness. The author has an hindex of 116, co-authored 1276 publications receiving 62506 citations. Previous affiliations of Bharat Bhushan include Harbin Institute of Technology & King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the theoretical mechanisms of the wetting of rough surfaces are presented followed by the characterization of natural leaf surfaces and a comprehensive review is presented on artificial super-hydrophobic surfaces fabricated using various fabrication techniques and the influence of micro-, nano-and hierarchical structures on superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, low adhesion, and drag reduction.

1,610 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Apr 1995-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tribology in thin films and at surfaces has been presented, which is of fundamental importance in many pure and applied sciences, such as computer simulations.
Abstract: Friction, wear and lubrication between materials in contact are of fundamental importance in many pure and applied sciences. Owing to the development of experimental and computer-simulation techniques for studying these phenomena at the atomic scale, an understanding is beginning to emerge of the molecular mechanisms of tribology in thin films and at surfaces.

1,393 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique was used for the characterization of layered materials and nonhomogeneous composites and applied to the measurement of contact stiffness, elastic modulus, hardness, creep resistance, and fatigue properties of the materials used in magnetic storage devices.

1,378 citations

Book
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a theory of the real area of contact (ROC) between two surfaces and show that the ROC can be represented as a triangle of a triangle.
Abstract: Foreword. Preface. 1 Introduction. 1.1 De.nition and History of Tribology. 1.2 Industrial Signi.cance of Tribology. 1.3 Origins and Signi.cance of Micro/Nanotribology. 1.4 Organization of the Book. References. 2 Solid Surface Characterization. 2.1 The Nature of Surfaces. 2.2 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Surface Layers. 2.3 Analysis of Surface Roughness. 2.4 Measurement of Surface Roughness. 2.5 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 3 Contact between Solid Surfaces. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Analysis of the Contacts. 3.3 Measurement of the Real Area of Contact. 3.4 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 4 Adhesion. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Solid-Solid Contact. 4.3 Liquid-Mediated Contact. 4.4 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 5 Friction. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Solid-Solid Contact. 5.3 Liquid-Mediated Contact. 5.4 Friction of Materials. 5.5 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 6 Interface Temperature of Sliding Surfaces. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Thermal Analysis. 6.3 Interface Temperature Measurements. 6.4 Closure. References. 7 Wear. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Types of Wear Mechanisms. 7.3 Types of Particles Present in Wear Debris. 7.4 Wear of Materials. 7.5 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 8 Fluid Film Lubrication. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Regimes of Fluid Film Lubrication. 8.3 Viscous Flow and Reynolds Equation. 8.4 Hydrostatic Lubrication. 8.5 Hydrodynamic Lubrication. 8.6 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. 8.7 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 9 Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Boundary Lubrication. 9.3 Liquid Lubricants. 9.4 Greases. 9.5 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 10 Micro/Nanotribology. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 SFA Studies. 10.3 AFM/FFM. 10.4 Atomic-Scale Simulations. 10.5 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 11 Friction and Wear Screening Test Methods. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Design Methodology. 11.3 Typical Test Geometries. 11.4 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. 12Tribological Components and Applications. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Common Tribological Components. 12.3 Microcomponents. 12.4 Material Processing. 12.5 Industrial Applications. 12.6 Closure. References. Suggested Reading. Problems. Appendix Units, Conversions, and Useful Relations. A.1 Fundamental Constants. A.2 Conversion of Units. A.3 Useful Relations. Index.

1,375 citations

Book
05 Nov 2017
TL;DR: In this paper, Lane et al. present a detailed overview of various aspects of micro-nodes and their application in data storage applications, including the development of the "Millipede" data-storage system.
Abstract: Foreword by Neal Lane Foreword by James R. Heath Introduction to Nanotechnology.- Part A Nanostructures, Micro- Nanofabrication, and Materials: Nanomaterials Synthesis and Applications: Molecule Based Devices.- Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes.- Nanowires.- Template-Based Growth of Nanorod Arrays.- Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication Using Focused-Ion-Beam Chemical-Vapor-Deposition.- Introduction to Micro/Nanofabrication.- Nanoimprint Lithography.- Stamping Techniques for Micro- Nanofabrication: Methods and Applications.- Materials Aspects of Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Systems.- Engineering Decentralized Nanoscale Systems.- Nanometer-Scale Thermoelectric Materials.- Nano- and Microstructured Semiconductor Materials for Macroelectronics Part B MEMS/NEMS and BioMEMS/NEMS: Next Generation Microelectronic Array Devices.- MEMS/NEMS Devices and Applications.- Nanomechanical Cantilever Array Sensors.- Therapeutic Nanodevices.- G-protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs).- Microfluids and Lab-on-a-Chip.- Centrifuge-Based Fluidic Platform.- Micro/Nano Droplets in Microfluidic Devices Part C Scanning Probe Microscopy: Scanning Probe Microscopy.- Probes in Scanning Microscopies.- Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy.- Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscopy.- Higher Harmonic Force Detection in Dynamic Force Microscopy.- Dynamic Modes of Atomic Force Microscopy.- Molecular Recognition Force Microscopy Part D Nanotribology and Nanomechanics: Nanotribology, Nanomechanics, and Materials Characterization.- Surface Forces and Nanorheology of Molecularly Thin Films.- Interfacial Forces and Spectroscopy of Confined Fluids.- Friction and Wear on the Atomic Scale.- Velocity Dependent Nature of Nanoscale Friction, Adhesion and Wear.- Computational Modeling of Nanometer-Scale Friction and Indentation.- Nanoscale Mechanical Properties.- Nanomechanical Properties of Solid Surfaces and Thin Films.-Scale Effects in Mechanical Properties and Tribology.- Mechanics of Biological Nanotechnology.- Characterization of Human Hair.- Mechanical Properties of Nanostructures Part E Molecularly Thick Films for Lubrication: Nanotribology of Ultrathin and Hard Amorphous Carbon Films.- Self-Assembled Monolayers for Controlling Adhesion, Friction, and Wear.- Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication Studies.- Kinetics and Energetics Part F Industrial Applications: The "Millipede" -- A Nanotechnology-Based AFM Data-Storage System.- Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications.- Microactuators for Dual-Stage Servo Systems in Magnetic Disk Files.- Nanorobotics Part G Micro- Nanodevice Reliability: Nanotribology and Nanomechanics of MEMS/NEMS and BioMEMS/NEMS.- Experimental Characterization Techniques for Micro- Nanoscale Devices.- Failure Mechanisms in MEMS Devices.- Mechanical Properties of Micromachined Structures.- Thermo- and Electromechanical Behavior of Thin-Film Micro- and Nanostructures.- High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products.- Packaging and Reliability Issues in Micro- Nano Systems Part H Technological Convergence and Governing Nanotechnology: Technological Convergence from the Nanoscale.- Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical, and Political Issues About the Authors Subject Index

1,263 citations


Cited by
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Journal Article
TL;DR: For the next few weeks the course is going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach it’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery.
Abstract: So far in this course we have dealt entirely with the evolution of characters that are controlled by simple Mendelian inheritance at a single locus. There are notes on the course website about gametic disequilibrium and how allele frequencies change at two loci simultaneously, but we didn’t discuss them. In every example we’ve considered we’ve imagined that we could understand something about evolution by examining the evolution of a single gene. That’s the domain of classical population genetics. For the next few weeks we’re going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach we’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery. If you know a little about the history of evolutionary biology, you may know that after the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900 there was a heated debate between the “biometricians” (e.g., Galton and Pearson) and the “Mendelians” (e.g., de Vries, Correns, Bateson, and Morgan). Biometricians asserted that the really important variation in evolution didn’t follow Mendelian rules. Height, weight, skin color, and similar traits seemed to

9,847 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By successively addressing each of the biological barriers that a particle encounters upon intravenous administration, innovative design features can be rationally incorporated that will create a new generation of nanotherapeutics, realizing a paradigmatic shift in nanoparticle-based drug delivery.
Abstract: Biological barriers to drug transport prevent successful accumulation of nanotherapeutics specifically at diseased sites, limiting efficacious responses in disease processes ranging from cancer to inflammation. Although substantial research efforts have aimed to incorporate multiple functionalities and moieties within the overall nanoparticle design, many of these strategies fail to adequately address these barriers. Obstacles, such as nonspecific distribution and inadequate accumulation of therapeutics, remain formidable challenges to drug developers. A reimagining of conventional nanoparticles is needed to successfully negotiate these impediments to drug delivery. Site-specific delivery of therapeutics will remain a distant reality unless nanocarrier design takes into account the majority, if not all, of the biological barriers that a particle encounters upon intravenous administration. By successively addressing each of these barriers, innovative design features can be rationally incorporated that will create a new generation of nanotherapeutics, realizing a paradigmatic shift in nanoparticle-based drug delivery.

4,457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the main 3D printing methods, materials and their development in trending applications was carried out in this paper, where the revolutionary applications of AM in biomedical, aerospace, buildings and protective structures were discussed.
Abstract: Freedom of design, mass customisation, waste minimisation and the ability to manufacture complex structures, as well as fast prototyping, are the main benefits of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. A comprehensive review of the main 3D printing methods, materials and their development in trending applications was carried out. In particular, the revolutionary applications of AM in biomedical, aerospace, buildings and protective structures were discussed. The current state of materials development, including metal alloys, polymer composites, ceramics and concrete, was presented. In addition, this paper discussed the main processing challenges with void formation, anisotropic behaviour, the limitation of computer design and layer-by-layer appearance. Overall, this paper gives an overview of 3D printing, including a survey on its benefits and drawbacks as a benchmark for future research and development.

4,159 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a potential function is presented that can be used to model both chemical reactions and intermolecular interactions in condensed-phase hydrocarbon systems such as liquids, graphite, and polymers.
Abstract: A potential function is presented that can be used to model both chemical reactions and intermolecular interactions in condensed-phase hydrocarbon systems such as liquids, graphite, and polymers. This potential is derived from a well-known dissociable hydrocarbon force field, the reactive empirical bond-order potential. The extensions include an adaptive treatment of the nonbonded and dihedral-angle interactions, which still allows for covalent bonding interactions. Torsional potentials are introduced via a novel interaction potential that does not require a fixed hybridization state. The resulting model is intended as a first step towards a transferable, empirical potential capable of simulating chemical reactions in a variety of environments. The current implementation has been validated against structural and energetic properties of both gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons, and is expected to prove useful in simulations of hydrocarbon liquids, thin films, and other saturated hydrocarbon systems.

3,626 citations