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Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez

Bio: Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez is an academic researcher from McGill University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Food security & Population. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 89 publications receiving 3336 citations. Previous affiliations of Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez include University of California, Davis & Ohio State University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This primer will equip both scientists and practitioners to understand the ontology and methodology of scale development and validation, thereby facilitating the advancement of the understanding of a range of health, social, and behavioral outcomes.
Abstract: Scale development and validation are critical to much of the work in the health, social, and behavioral sciences. However, the constellation of techniques required for scale development and evaluation can be onerous, jargon-filled, unfamiliar, and resource-intensive. Further, it is often not a part of graduate training. Therefore, our goal was to concisely review the process of scale development in as straightforward a manner as possible, both to facilitate the development of new, valid, and reliable scales, and to help improve existing ones. To do this, we have created a primer for best practices for scale development in measuring complex phenomena. This is not a systematic review, but rather the amalgamation of technical literature and lessons learned from our experiences spent creating or adapting a number of scales over the past several decades. We identified three phases that span nine steps. In the first phase, items are generated and the validity of their content is assessed. In the second phase, the scale is constructed. Steps in scale construction include pre-testing the questions, administering the survey, reducing the number of items, and understanding how many factors the scale captures. In the third phase, scale evaluation, the number of dimensions is tested, reliability is tested, and validity is assessed. We have also added examples of best practices to each step. In sum, this primer will equip both scientists and practitioners to understand the ontology and methodology of scale development and validation, thereby facilitating the advancement of our understanding of a range of health, social, and behavioral outcomes.

1,523 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Assessment of the quality of the current intakes of fruits and vegetables compared to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in US children and adolescents found children aged 2 to 5 years had significantly higher total fruit and juice intakes than 6- to 11- and 12- to 18-year-olds, and boys consumed significantly more fruit juice and french fries than girls.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the current intakes of fruits and vegetables compared to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in US children and adolescents and identify factors related to low fruit and vegetable intake. This descriptive study examined differences in fruit and vegetable intakes by age, sex, ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, and food security status utilizing data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Six thousand five hundred thirteen children and adolescents ages 2 to 18 years, who were respondents to the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean fruit and vegetable intakes were computed using 24-hour recalls for individuals and compared using analysis of variance. Leading contributors to fruit and vegetable intake were identified using frequency analysis. Children aged 2 to 5 years had significantly higher total fruit and juice intakes than 6- to 11- and 12- to 18-year-olds. Total vegetable and french fry intake was significantly higher among 12- to 18-year-old adolescents. Regarding sex differences, boys consumed significantly more fruit juice and french fries than girls. In addition, non-Hispanic African-American children and adolescents consumed significantly more dark-green vegetables and fewer mean deep-yellow vegetables than Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white children and adolescents. Total fruit consumption also differed significantly among race/ethnicities and household income. Children and adolescents most at risk for higher intakes of energy-dense fruits and vegetables (fruit juice and french fries) were generally boys, and adolescents, at risk for overweight or overweight and living in households below 350% of the poverty level.

368 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Dietetics professionals working with low-income Hispanic-American families should screen for different levels of food insecurity to determine needs for nutrition education and other services.
Abstract: Objective To examine the relationship of food insecurity to nutrition of Mexican-American preschoolers. Design Cross-sectional survey of low-income Mexican-American families with children of preschool age (3 to 6 years). Data included food security using the Radimer/ Cornell scale; acculturation; parental education; monthly income; past experience of food insecurity; and child weight, height, and frequency of consuming 57 foods. Weight-for-height z scores (WHZ), height- for-age z (HAZ) scores, and the percentage of overweight (≥85th percentile WHZ) were calculated. Subjects/Setting A convenience sample of Mexican-American families (n=211) was recruited through Head Start, Healthy Start, Migrant Education, and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Tulare, Fresno, Monterey, and Kern counties in California. Statistical analyses Analysis of variance, t tests, Spearman's correlations, and Mantel Haenszel χ 2 . Results Limited education, lack of English proficiency, and low income were negatively correlated with food security (r=−0.31 to −0.44, P P Applications/Conclusions Dietetics professionals working with low-income Hispanic-American families should screen for different levels of food insecurity to determine needs for nutrition education and other services. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102:924-929 .

282 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is offered that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings, and significantly higher total DPC food expenditures as well as expenditures on animal source foods, vegetables, and fats and oils than moderately and severely food-insecure households.
Abstract: This study examined the association between food insecurity determined by a modified version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM) and total daily per capita (DPC) consumption (measured as household expenditures) in Bolivia Burkina Faso and the Philippines. Household food insecurity was determined by an adapted 9-item US HFSSM version. A short version of the World Banks Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) consumption module measured household expenditures. Focus groups were used to adapt the survey instrument to each local context. The sample (n ~ 330 per country) includes residents of urban and rural areas. A 12-month food expenditure aggregate was generated as part of the total household expenditures calculation. DPC food expenditure which represented over 60% of the total household consumption as well as expenditures on specific food groups correlated with food insecurity both as a continuous Food Insecurity Score (FinSS) and a tricategorical food insecurity status variable. ANOVA and regression analysis were executed adjusting for social and demographic covariates. Food-secure households have significantly higher (P < 0.05) total DPC food expenditures as well as expenditures on animal source foods vegetables and fats and oils than moderately and severely food-insecure households. The results offer evidence that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings. (authors)

253 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Latino households, greater food insecurity is associated with a lower variety of most foods, particularly fruits and vegetables, and future research in Latino households should explore the effects of seasonal food insecurity and household food shortages on food intake of individual household members, especially young children.

185 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: For example, Standardi pružaju okvir koje ukazuju na ucinkovitost kvalitetnih instrumenata u onim situacijama u kojima je njihovo koristenje potkrijepljeno validacijskim podacima.
Abstract: Pedagosko i psiholosko testiranje i procjenjivanje spadaju među najvažnije doprinose znanosti o ponasanju nasem drustvu i pružaju temeljna i znacajna poboljsanja u odnosu na ranije postupke. Iako se ne može ustvrditi da su svi testovi dovoljno usavrseni niti da su sva testiranja razborita i korisna, postoji velika kolicina informacija koje ukazuju na ucinkovitost kvalitetnih instrumenata u onim situacijama u kojima je njihovo koristenje potkrijepljeno validacijskim podacima. Pravilna upotreba testova može dovesti do boljih odluka o pojedincima i programima nego sto bi to bio slucaj bez njihovog koristenja, a također i ukazati na put za siri i pravedniji pristup obrazovanju i zaposljavanju. Međutim, losa upotreba testova može dovesti do zamjetne stete nanesene ispitanicima i drugim sudionicima u procesu donosenja odluka na temelju testovnih podataka. Cilj Standarda je promoviranje kvalitetne i eticne upotrebe testova te uspostavljanje osnovice za ocjenu kvalitete postupaka testiranja. Svrha objavljivanja Standarda je uspostavljanje kriterija za evaluaciju testova, provedbe testiranja i posljedica upotrebe testova. Iako bi evaluacija prikladnosti testa ili njegove primjene trebala ovisiti prvenstveno o strucnim misljenjima, Standardi pružaju okvir koji osigurava obuhvacanje svih relevantnih pitanja. Bilo bi poželjno da svi autori, sponzori, nakladnici i korisnici profesionalnih testova usvoje Standarde te da poticu druge da ih također prihvate.

3,905 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity, and sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle.

2,559 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results underscore a view of obesity as a social phenomenon, for which appropriate action includes targeting both economic and sociocultural factors.
Abstract: The objective of this review was to update Sobal and Stunkard’s exhaustive review of the literature on the relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity (Psychol Bull 1989;105:260–75). Diverse research databases (including CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and Social Science Abstracts) were comprehensively searched during the years 1988–2004 inclusive, using ‘‘obesity,’’ ‘‘socioeconomic status,’’ and synonyms as search terms. A total of 333 published studies, representing 1,914 primarily cross-sectional associations, were included in the review. The overall pattern of results, for both men and women, was of an increasing proportion of positive associations and a decreasing proportion of negative associations as one moved from countries with high levels of socioeconomic development to countries with medium and low levels of development. Findings varied by SES indicator; for example, negative associations (lower SES associated with larger body size) for women in highly developed countries were most common with education and occupation, while positive associations for women in medium- and low-development countries were most common with income and material possessions. Patterns for women in higher- versus lower-development countries were generally less striking than those observed by Sobal and Stunkard; this finding is interpreted in light of trends related to globalization. Results underscore a view of obesity as a social phenomenon, for which appropriate action includes targeting both economic and sociocultural factors.

1,989 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This primer will equip both scientists and practitioners to understand the ontology and methodology of scale development and validation, thereby facilitating the advancement of the understanding of a range of health, social, and behavioral outcomes.
Abstract: Scale development and validation are critical to much of the work in the health, social, and behavioral sciences. However, the constellation of techniques required for scale development and evaluation can be onerous, jargon-filled, unfamiliar, and resource-intensive. Further, it is often not a part of graduate training. Therefore, our goal was to concisely review the process of scale development in as straightforward a manner as possible, both to facilitate the development of new, valid, and reliable scales, and to help improve existing ones. To do this, we have created a primer for best practices for scale development in measuring complex phenomena. This is not a systematic review, but rather the amalgamation of technical literature and lessons learned from our experiences spent creating or adapting a number of scales over the past several decades. We identified three phases that span nine steps. In the first phase, items are generated and the validity of their content is assessed. In the second phase, the scale is constructed. Steps in scale construction include pre-testing the questions, administering the survey, reducing the number of items, and understanding how many factors the scale captures. In the third phase, scale evaluation, the number of dimensions is tested, reliability is tested, and validity is assessed. We have also added examples of best practices to each step. In sum, this primer will equip both scientists and practitioners to understand the ontology and methodology of scale development and validation, thereby facilitating the advancement of our understanding of a range of health, social, and behavioral outcomes.

1,523 citations