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K. Böttcher

Bio: K. Böttcher is an academic researcher from Technische Universität München. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lymphadenectomy & Carcinoma. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 26 publications receiving 3179 citations.

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TL;DR: Lymph node ratio and lymph node status are the most important prognostic factors in patients with resected Gastric cancer and in experienced centers, extended lymph node dissection does not increase the mortality or morbidity rate of resection for gastric cancer but markedly improves long-term survival in patientsWith stage II tumors.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: In 1986 a prospective multicenter observation trial in patients with resected gastric cancer was initiated in Germany. An analysis of prognostic factors based on the 10-year survival data is now presented. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1654 patients treated for gastric cancer between 1986 and 1989 at 19 centers in Germany and Austria were included. The resected specimen were evaluated histopathologically according to a standardized protocol. The extent of lymphadenectomy was classified after surgery based on the number of removed lymph nodes on histopathologic assessment (25 or fewer removed nodes, D1 or standard lymphadenectomy; >25 removed nodes, D2 or extended lymphadenectomy). Endpoint of the study was death. Follow-up is complete for 97% of the included patients (median follow-up of the surviving patients is 8.4 years). Prognostic factors were assessed by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A complete macroscopic and microscopic tumor resection (R0 resection according to the UICC 1997) could be achieved in 1182 of the 1654 patients (71.5%). The calculated 10-year survival rate in the entire patient population was 26.3% +/- 4.7%; it was 36.1% +/- 1.6% after an R0 resection. In the total patient population there was an independent prognostic effect of the ratio between invaded and removed lymph nodes, the residual tumor (R) category, the pT category, the presence of postsurgical complications, and the presence of distant metastases. Multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients who had a UICC R0 resection confirmed the nodal status, the pT category, and the presence of postsurgical complications as the major independent prognostic factors. The extent of lymph node dissection had a significant and independent effect on the 10-year survival rate in patients with stage II tumors. This effect was present in the subgroups with (pT2N1) and without (pT3N0) lymph node metastases on standard histopathologic assessment. The beneficial effect of extended lymph node dissection for stage II tumors persisted when patients with insufficient lymph node dissection (<15 nodes) were excluded from the analysis. There was no difference in the postsurgical morbidity and mortality rates between patients with standard and extended lymph node dissection. CONCLUSIONS: Lymph node ratio and lymph node status are the most important prognostic factors in patients with resected gastric cancer. In experienced centers, extended lymph node dissection does not increase the mortality or morbidity rate of resection for gastric cancer but markedly improves long-term survival in patients with stage II tumors. This effect appears to be independent of the phenomenon of stage migration.

992 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2003-Cancer
TL;DR: The authors performed the current study to determine which histomorphologic features are correlated with patient prognosis after chemotherapy, and which are not.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has shown some success in the treatment of gastric carcinoma, but objective parameters for measuring its effects are lacking. The authors performed the current study to determine which histomorphologic features are correlated with patient prognosis after chemotherapy. METHODS Thirty-six patients with gastric carcinoma were treated with a combination of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. The entire tumor beds of the specimens were evaluated histologically and compared with specimens treated with surgery alone. Thirty-four patients were available for survival analysis (follow-up period, 60–130 months). RESULTS None of the 36 patients had complete tumor regression, 4 patients had marked regression (less than 10% viable tumor), 9 patients had regression to 10–50% remaining viable tumor, and 23 patients had more than 50% viable tumor remaining. Currently, 9 patients are still alive (5-year survival rate, 27%). Tumor regression was found to be correlated significantly with survival (P = 0.01), but tumor size (P = 0.002) and lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.003) were better predictors of prognosis. CONCLUSIONS Histologic tumor regression grade is an objective measure of the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with gastric carcinoma, but its accuracy may be improved by adding additional staging variables such as tumor size and lymphatic vessel involvement. Cancer 2003;98:1521–30. © 2003 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.11660

617 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Radical lymphadenectomy improves survival in patients with UICC gastric cancer stages II and IIIA, and should be the recommended treatment for such patients.
Abstract: In a prospective multicentre study of 2394 patients with gastric carcinoma the prognostic relevance of systematic lymph node dissection was evaluated. Of 1654 patients undergoing resection, 558 had a standard lymph node dissection, defined as fewer than 26 nodes in the specimen, and 1096 underwent radical lymphadenectomy, i.e. 26 or more nodes in the specimen. Radical dissection significantly improved the survival rate in patients with Union Internacional Contra la Cancrum (UICC) stages II and IIIA tumours. Multivariate analysis identified radical dissection as an independent prognostic factor in the subgroups of patients with UICC tumour stages II and IIA. Radical dissection conferred no survival advantage in patients with pN2 tumours. There was no significant difference in morbidity and mortality rates between radical and standard lymph node dissection. Radical lymphadenectomy improves survival in patients with UICC gastric cancer stages II and IIIA, and should be the recommended treatment for such patients.

391 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1993-Cancer
TL;DR: The impact of patient‐ and tumor‐dependent factors and the postoperative course on the prognosis of patients who underwent resection for gastric carcinoma between 1986 and 1989 were analyzed in a prospective multicenter observation study.
Abstract: Background. The impact of patient- and tumor-dependent factors and the postoperative course on the prognosis of patients who underwent resection for gastric carcinoma between 1986 and 1989 were analyzed in a prospective multicenter observation study. Methods. Resection techniques, the extent of lymph node dissection, and the histopathologic assessment of the specimen were standardized at all participating centers. A total of 1654 patients were enrolled. Follow-up is complete for 99.2% of the patients, with a median follow-up time of 48 months. Prognostic factors were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results. In the total patient population there was an independent prognostic effect of nodal status, a International Union Against Cancer (UICC)-R0 resection, distant metastases, the pT category, three or more risk factors on preoperative risk analysis, and the presence of postoperative complications. Multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients who had a UICC-R0 resection confirmed the nodal status as the major independent prognostic factor. Conclusion. These data suggest that the prognosis of patients who undergo gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma may be improved by a complete resection of the primary tumor and its lymphatic drainage, resulting in a UICC-R0 resection. In addition, a detailed preoperative risk analysis and identification of high-risk patients and meticulous attention to the technical details of the surgical procedure to reduce the frequency of postoperative complications may improve the prognosis.

319 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The frequent occurrence of micro-involvement is a strong argument favouring routine D2 lymph node dissection in gastric cancer surgery in patients with lymph node metastasis.
Abstract: A retrospective immunohistological analysis of 100 patients with pT1-3 N0 and pT1-3 N1 gastric adenocarcinoma demonstrated a high frequency of micro-involvement in the removed lymph nodes. The presence of three or more tumour cells in more than 10 per cent of the lymph nodes was of significant prognostic value in the pN0 cases. Multivariate analysis identified micro-involvement as an independent prognostic factor. The results explain why patients benefit from lymphadenectomy even if the removed lymph nodes are not involved by tumour (pN0) in routine histological examination. The frequent occurrence of micro-involvement is a strong argument favouring routine D2 lymph node dissection in gastric cancer surgery in patients with lymph node metastasis.

242 citations


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TL;DR: In patients with operable gastric or lower esophageal adenocarcinomas, a perioperative regimen of ECF decreased tumor size and stage and significantly improved progression-free and overall survival.
Abstract: Background A regimen of epirubicin, cisplatin, and infused fluorouracil (ECF) improves survival among patients with incurable locally advanced or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. We assessed whether the addition of a perioperative regimen of ECF to surgery improves outcomes among patients with potentially curable gastric cancer. Methods We randomly assigned patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, esophagogastric junction, or lower esophagus to either perioperative chemotherapy and surgery (250 patients) or surgery alone (253 patients). Chemotherapy consisted of three preoperative and three postoperative cycles of intravenous epirubicin (50 mg per square meter of body-surface area) and cisplatin (60 mg per square meter) on day 1, and a continuous intravenous infusion of fluorouracil (200 mg per square meter per day) for 21 days. The primary end point was overall survival. Results ECF-related adverse effects were similar to those previously reported among patients with advanced gastric cancer. Rates of postoperative complications were similar in the perioperative-chemotherapy group and the surgery group (46 percent and 45 percent, respectively), as were the numbers of deaths within 30 days after surgery. The resected tumors were significantly smaller and less advanced in the perioperative-chemotherapy group. With a median follow-up of four years, 149 patients in the perioperative-chemotherapy group and 170 in the surgery group had died. As compared with the surgery group, the perioperative-chemotherapy group had a higher likelihood of overall survival (hazard ratio for death, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.93; P = 0.009; five-year survival rate, 36 percent vs. 23 percent) and of progression-free survival (hazard ratio for progression, 0.66; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001). Conclusions In patients with operable gastric or lower esophageal adenocarcinomas, a perioperative regimen of ECF decreased tumor size and stage and significantly improved progression-free and overall survival. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN93793971.)

5,133 citations

01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Lymphedema is a common complication after treatment for breast cancer and factors associated with increased risk of lymphedEMA include extent of axillary surgery, axillary radiation, infection, and patient obesity.

1,988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the lower esophagus, GEJ, or stomach, perioperative chemotherapy using fluorouracil plus cisplatin significantly increased the curative resection rate, disease-free survival, and OS.
Abstract: Purpose After curative resection, the prognosis of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma is poor. This phase III trial was designed to evaluate the benefit in overall survival (OS) of perioperative fluorouracil plus cisplatin in resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. Patients and Methods Overall, 224 patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the lower esophagus, gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), or stomach were randomly assigned to either perioperative chemotherapy and surgery (CS group; n 113) or surgery alone (S group; n 111). Chemotherapy consisted of two or three preoperative cycles of intravenous cisplatin (100 mg/m 2 ) on day 1, and a continuous intravenous infusion of fluorouracil (800 mg/m 2 /d) for 5 consecutive days (days 1 to 5) every 28 days and three or four postoperative cycles of the same regimen. The primary end point was OS. Results Compared with the S group, the CS group had a better OS (5-year rate 38% v 24%; hazard ratio [HR] for death: 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.95; P .02); and a better disease-free survival (5-year rate: 34% v 19%; HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89; P .003). In the multivariable analysis, the favorable prognostic factors for survival were perioperative chemotherapy (P .01) and stomach tumor localization (P .01). Perioperative chemotherapy significantly improved the curative resection rate (84% v 73%; P .04). Grade 3 to 4 toxicity occurred in 38% of CS patients (mainly neutropenia) but postoperative morbidity was similar in the two groups. Conclusion In patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the lower esophagus, GEJ, or stomach, perioperative chemotherapy using fluorouracil plus cisplatin significantly increased the curative resection rate, disease-free survival, and OS. J Clin Oncol 29:1715-1721. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

1,548 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This manuscript focuses on the NCCN Guidelines Panel recommendations for the workup, primary treatment, risk reduction strategies, and surveillance specific to DCIS.
Abstract: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents a heterogeneous group of neoplastic lesions in the breast ducts. The goal for management of DCIS is to prevent the development of invasive breast cancer. This manuscript focuses on the NCCN Guidelines Panel recommendations for the workup, primary treatment, risk reduction strategies, and surveillance specific to DCIS.

1,545 citations