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Kees Brinkman

Bio: Kees Brinkman is an academic researcher from Henry Ford Hospital. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lamivudine & Men who have sex with men. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 120 publications receiving 6289 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1998-AIDS
TL;DR: Although the introduction of protease inhibitors has changed management of HIV infection drastically, this cerebro-protective property will assert the role of these nucleo-side RT inhibitors (NRTI) as a cornerstone ofantiretroviral therapy.
Abstract: After zidovudine (ZDV), a 3′-azido analogue of thymi-dine, was found to be an effective antiretroviral drugagainst HIV [1,2], other nucleoside analogues inhibit-ing reverse transcriptase (RT) soon followed: didano-sine (ddI), zalcitabine (ddC), lamivudine (3TC),stavudine (D4T), and recently abacavir (1592U89)[3–7]. These drugs have demonstrated efficacy inreduction of morbidity and mortality, especially incombination therapy [8–10]. A special feature of someof these drugs is the protection against AIDS dementiacomplex, which appears to be related to good penetra-tion of the blood–brain barrier [11–13]. Although theintroduction of protease inhibitors has changed themanagement of HIV infection drastically, this cerebro-protective property will assert the role of these nucleo-side RT inhibitors (NRTI) as a cornerstone ofantiretroviral therapy [9,10].More than 10 years of experience with NRTI therapyhas revealed important adverse effects ranging frommild (myopathy) to fatal in some cases (pancreatitis,liver failure and lactic acidosis). Behind most of theseside-effects there appears to be a common mechanism:a decreased mitochondrial energy-generating capacity.In this review we will summarize the literature inwhich this mechanism is analysed and will emphasizethe importance of acquired mitochondrial dysfunctionthat will accumulate during long-term treatment withantiretroviral nucleoside analogues.

888 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is postulate that the mitochondrial toxicity of the nucleoside-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors plays an essential part in the development of this lipodystrophy, similar to the role of mitochondrial defects in theDevelopment of multiple symmetrical lipomatosis.

787 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The profile of patients in the Netherlands infected with HIV is changing, with increasing numbers of older patients with multiple morbidities, which means that, in the near future, HIV care will increasingly need to draw on a wide range of medical disciplines, in addition to evidence-based screening and monitoring protocols to ensure continued high-quality care.
Abstract: Summary Background The population infected with HIV is getting older and these people will increasingly develop age-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We aimed to quantify the scale of the change and the implications for HIV care in the Netherlands in the future. Methods We constructed an individual-based model of the ageing HIV-infected population, which followed patients on HIV treatment as they age, develop NCDs—including cardiovascular disease (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, myocardial infarctions, and strokes), diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, and non-AIDS malignancies—and start co-medication for these diseases. The model was parameterised by use of data for 10 278 patients from the national Dutch ATHENA cohort between 1996 and 2010. We made projections up to 2030. Findings Our model suggests that the median age of HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase from 43·9 years in 2010 to 56·6 in 2030, with the proportion of HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older increasing from 28% in 2010 to 73% in 2030. In 2030, we predict that 84% of HIV-infected patients will have at least one NCD, up from 29% in 2010, with 28% of HIV-infected patients in 2030 having three or more NCDs. 54% of HIV-infected patients will be prescribed co-medications in 2030, compared with 13% in 2010, with 20% taking three or more co-medications. Most of this change will be driven by increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated drugs. Because of contraindications and drug–drug interactions, in 2030, 40% of patients could have complications with the currently recommended first-line HIV regimens. Interpretation The profile of patients in the Netherlands infected with HIV is changing, with increasing numbers of older patients with multiple morbidities. These changes mean that, in the near future, HIV care will increasingly need to draw on a wide range of medical disciplines, in addition to evidence-based screening and monitoring protocols to ensure continued high-quality care. These findings are based on a large dataset of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands, but we believe that the overall patterns will be repeated elsewhere in Europe and North America. The implications of such a trend for care of HIV-infected patients in high-burden countries in Africa could present a particular challenge. Funding Medical Research Council, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Rush Foundation, and Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport.

602 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jun 2010-AIDS
TL;DR: The life expectancy of asymptomatic HIV-infected patients who are still treatment-naive and have not experienced a CDC-B or C event at 24 weeks after diagnosis approaches that of non- Infected individuals, however, follow-up time is short compared to the expected number of years lived.
Abstract: Objective: To compare life expectancies between recently diagnosed HIV-infected patients and age and sex-matched uninfected individuals from the general population. Design: National observational HIV cohort in the Netherlands. Methods: Four thousand, six hundred and twelve patients diagnosed with HIV between 1998 and 2007 and still antiretroviral therapy-naive as of 24 weeks after diagnosis were selected. Progression to death compared to the age and sex-matched general population was studied with a multivariate hazards model in 4174 (90.5%) patients without AIDS events at 24 weeks. Life expectancy and number of life years lost were calculated using the predicted survival distribution. Results: During 17 580 person-years of follow-up since 24 weeks after diagnosis [median follow-up 3.3 years, interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.8], 118 deaths occurred, yielding a mortality rate of 6.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5-8.0] per 1000 person-years. Median CD4 cell counts at 24 weeks were 480 cells/mu l (IQR 360-650). According to the model, the median number of years lived from age 25 was 52.7 (IQR 44.2-59.3; general population 53.1) for men and 57.8 (49.2-63.7; 58.1) for women without CDC-B event. The number of life years lost varied between 0.4 if diagnosed with HIV at age 25 and 1.4 if diagnosed at age 55; for patients with a CDC-B event this range was 1.8-8.0 years. Conclusion: The life expectancy of asymptomatic HIV-infected patients who are still treatment-naive and have not experienced a CDC-B or C event at 24 weeks after diagnosis approaches that of non-infected individuals. However, follow-up time is short compared to the expected number of years lived. (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

403 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Oct 2003-AIDS
TL;DR: Survival probabilities were high among HIV-infected patients initiating HAART at an early stage of infection, and the best therapy strategy is therefore to startHAART at this stage of infections, however, deferring HAART in patients with high CD4 cell counts may be clinically more appropriate given toxicity and adherence problems.
Abstract: Objectives: To examine survival and progression to AIDS among HIV-infected patients after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: The study population consisted of 3724 patients from the ATHENA observational cohort who initiated HAART. We considered progression to either an AIDS-defining disease or death, distinguishing HIV-related and non-related (including therapy-related) deaths. A time-dependent multivariate hazards model was fitted to the patient data and 5-year survival probabilities under various therapy scenarios estimated. Results: A total of 459 patients developed AIDS and 346 died during 12 503 person-years of follow-up. HIV-related mortality decreased from 3.8 to 0.7 per 100 personyears between 1996 and 2000 whereas non-HIV-related mortality did not change (0.4 and 0.9, respectively, P=0.25). For asymptomatic and symptomatic therapy naive patients younger than 50 years with CD4 counts above 10 X 10(6) and 150 X 10(6) cells/l, respectively, predicted 5-year survival probabilities were above 90% when HAART was used continuously. This limit was 450 X 10(6) cells/l when HAART was used during 20 weeks in each 24 week-period of follow-up, and 110 X 10(6) cells/l when patients delayed initiation of HAART for 1 year after becoming eligible for treatment. Conclusions: Survival probabilities were high among HIV-infected patients initiating HAART at an early stage of infection. The best therapy strategy is therefore to start HAART at this stage of infection. However, deferring HAART in patients with high CD4 cell counts may be clinically more appropriate given toxicity and adherence problems. The lack of any change in non-HIV-related mortality suggests that toxicity has not yet become a major risk factor for death. (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins

185 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These Guidelines were developed by the Panel* on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection convened by the Department of Health and Human Services and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
Abstract: SUMMARY The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced extraordinary complexity into the treatment of HIV-infected persons. In 1996, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation convened the Panel on Clinical Practices for the Treatment of HIV to develop guidelines for the clinical management of HIV-infected adults and adolescents. This report recommends that care should be supervised by an expert, and makes recommendations for laboratory monitoring including plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell counts and HIV drug resistance testing. The report also provides guidelines for antiretroviral therapy, including when to start treatment, what drugs to initiate, when to change therapy, and therapeutic options when changing therapy. Special considerations are provided for adolescents and pregnant women. As with treatment of other chronic conditions, therapeutic decisions require a mutual understanding between the patient and the health care provider regarding the benefits and risks of treatment. Antiretroviral regimens are complex, have major side effects, pose difficulty with adherence, and carry serious potential consequences from the development of viral resistance due to non-adherence to the drug regimen or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents. Patient education and involvement in therapeutic

4,321 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: FastTree as mentioned in this paper uses sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins, then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree.
Abstract: Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree. For an alignment with N sequences, L sites, and a different characters, a distance matrix requires O(N^2) space and O(N^2 L) time, but FastTree requires just O( NLa + N sqrt(N) ) memory and O( N sqrt(N) log(N) L a ) time. To estimate the tree's reliability, FastTree uses local bootstrapping, which gives another 100-fold speedup over a distance matrix. For example, FastTree computed a tree and support values for 158,022 distinct 16S ribosomal RNAs in 17 hours and 2.4 gigabytes of memory. Just computing pairwise Jukes-Cantor distances and storing them, without inferring a tree or bootstrapping, would require 17 hours and 50 gigabytes of memory. In simulations, FastTree was slightly more accurate than neighbor joining, BIONJ, or FastME; on genuine alignments, FastTree's topologies had higher likelihoods. FastTree is available at http://microbesonline.org/fasttree.

2,436 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Aug 2008-JAMA
TL;DR: This report provides guidelines for when to initiate antiretroviral therapy, selection of appropriate initial regimens, patient monitoring, when to change therapy, and what regimens to use when changing.
Abstract: Context New trial data and drug regimens that have become available in the last 2 years warrant an update to guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults in resource-rich settings. Objective To provide current recommendations for the treatment of adult HIV infection with ART and use of laboratory-monitoring tools. Guidelines include when to start therapy and with what drugs, monitoring for response and toxic effects, special considerations in therapy, and managing antiretroviral failure. Data Sources, Study Selection, and Data Extraction Data that had been published or presented in abstract form at scientific conferences in the past 2 years were systematically searched and reviewed by an International Antiviral Society–USA panel. The panel reviewed available evidence and formed recommendations by full panel consensus. Data Synthesis Treatment is recommended for all adults with HIV infection; the strength of the recommendation and the quality of the evidence increase with decreasing CD4 cell count and the presence of certain concurrent conditions. Recommended initial regimens include 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine) plus a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz), a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (atazanavir or darunavir), or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (raltegravir). Alternatives in each class are recommended for patients with or at risk of certain concurrent conditions. CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA level should be monitored, as should engagement in care, ART adherence, HIV drug resistance, and quality-of-care indicators. Reasons for regimen switching include virologic, immunologic, or clinical failure and drug toxicity or intolerance. Confirmed treatment failure should be addressed promptly and multiple factors considered. Conclusion New recommendations for HIV patient care include offering ART to all patients regardless of CD4 cell count, changes in therapeutic options, and modifications in the timing and choice of ART in the setting of opportunistic illnesses such as cryptococcal disease and tuberculosis.

2,357 citations

01 Aug 2016
TL;DR: Trimetazidine is indicated in adults as add-on therapy for the symptomatic treatment of patients with stable angina pectoris who are inadequately controlled by or intolerant to first-line antianginal therapies.
Abstract: 4 CLINICAL PARTICULARS 4.1 Therapeutic Indications Trimetazidine is indicated in adults as add-on therapy for the symptomatic treatment of patients with stable angina pectoris who are inadequately controlled by or intolerant to first-line antianginal therapies. 4.2 Posology and method of administration Oral administration. Posology The dose is one tablet of 35mg of trimetazidine twice daily during meals. Special populations Renal impairment In patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance [30-60] ml/min) (see sections 4.4 and 5.2), the recommended dose is 1 tablet of 35mg in the morning during breakfast. Elderly Elderly patients may have increased trimetazidine exposure due to age-related decrease in renal function (see section 5.2). In patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance [30-60] ml/min), the recommended dose is 1 tablet of 35mg in the morning during breakfast. Dose titration in elderly patients should be exercised with caution (see section 4.4). Health Products Regulatory Authority

1,677 citations

01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: These guidelines are primarily intended for use by national and regional HIV programme managers managers of nongovernmental organizations delivering HIV care services and other policy-makers who are involved in the scaling up of comprehensive HIV care and ART in resource-limited countries.
Abstract: This publication is intended to serve as a reference tool for countries with limited resources as they develop or revise national guidelines for the use of ART in adults and postpubertal adolescents (see Annex 9 for pubertal Tanner staging; prepubertal adolescents should follow the WHO paediatric guidelines). The material presented takes updated evidence into account including new ART treatment options and draws on the experience of established ART scale-up programmes. The simplified approach with evidence-based standards continues to be the basis of WHO recommendations for the initiation and monitoring of ART. The guidelines are primarily intended for use by national and regional HIV programme managers managers of nongovernmental organizations delivering HIV care services and other policy-makers who are involved in the scaling up of comprehensive HIV care and ART in resource-limited countries. The comprehensive up-to-date technical and clinical information on the use of ART however also makes these guidelines useful for clinicians in resource-limited settings. The recommendations contained in these guidelines are made on the basis of different levels of evidence from randomized clinical trials high-quality scientific studies observational cohort data and where insufficient evidence is available expert opinion. The strengths of the recommendations in Table 1 are intended to indicate the degrees to which the recommendations should be considered by regional and country programmes. Cost-effectiveness is not explicitly considered as part of the recommendations although the realities of human resources health system infrastructures and socioeconomic issues should be taken into account when the recommendations are being adapted to regional and country programmes. (excerpt)

1,454 citations