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Martin Shaw

Bio: Martin Shaw is an academic researcher from Plant & Food Research. The author has contributed to research in topics: Genocide & International relations. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 129 publications receiving 4625 citations. Previous affiliations of Martin Shaw include Institut Barcelona d'Estudis Internacionals & Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An examination of the current state of hepatotoxic biomarkers indicates that serum F protein, arginase I, and glutathione-S-transferase alpha (GSTalpha) levels, all measured by ELISA, may show utility, however, antibody availability and high cost per run may present limitations to widespread applicability in preclinical safety studies.

1,015 citations

MonographDOI
Martin Shaw1
30 Nov 2000
TL;DR: The Theory of the Global State as mentioned in this paper proposes a historical, theoretical and political framework for understanding state and society in the emerging global age, which is based on the unfinished global-democratic revolution and the global-western state.
Abstract: This ambitious study rewrites the terms of debate about globalization Martin Shaw argues that the deepest meaning of globality is the growing sense of worldwide human commonality as a practical social force, arising from political struggle not technological change The book focuses upon two new concepts: the unfinished global-democratic revolution and the global-Western state Shaw shows how an internationalized, post-imperial Western state conglomerate, symbiotically linked to global institutions, is increasingly consolidated amidst worldwide democratic upheavals against authoritarian, quasi-imperial non-Western states This study explores the radical implications of these concepts for social, political and international theory, through a fundamental critique of modern ‘national-international’ social thought and dominant economistic versions of global theory Required reading for sociology and politics as well as international relations, Theory of the Global State offers a historical, theoretical and political framework for understanding state and society in the emerging global age • Major new contribution to debates about globalization, by an important scholar of international relations and sociology • The first major work from a historical sociology perspective to account for global change, and an original criticism of mainstream accounts of globalization • Will have widespread appeal to students of globalization in IR, politics, sociology and geography departments

289 citations

Book
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The New Western Way of War as discussed by the authors argues that the US has consistently flouted the key rules that enabled Western states to fight these earlier wars successfully, and the results are not only political failure and a disaster in Iraq, but also a loss of credibility for the very idea of Western warfare.
Abstract: In this seminal new work, Martin Shaw, a leading expert on the sociology of war, argues that the new Western way of war is in crisis. He charts the development of a new warfare, after Vietnam, through the Falklands, the Gulf, Kosovo and Afghanistan. He argues that in the Iraq (mis)adventure (of which he provides a detailed analysis) and the War on Terror, the US has consistently flouted the key rules that enabled Western states to fight these earlier wars successfully. The results are not only political failure and a disaster in Iraq, but also a loss of credibility for the very idea of Western warfare. For Shaw, the new way of war focuses on containing risks to the lives of Western soldiers in order to minimise political and electoral risk to governments. Risk is transferred to innocent civilians, whose killing is explained away as 'accidental'. Yet the idea of managing risk is fundamentally at odds with the brutal, unpredictable nature of war. Ultimately, attempts to manage, govern and rule over the risks of war produce greater risks for those in power. The New Western Way of War is a moral and political statement as well as a major contribution to sociology and international relations. It will make compelling reading not only for students and scholars of these disciplines, but for anyone concerned about Western political and military power, and the future for global justice.

190 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pulse-chase experiments with 35 SO 4 2− fed for 10 min to leaves of Allium cepa (onion), A. sativum (garlic) and 4 A. siculum showed that label appeared in γ-glutamyl peptides within 15 min, reached a maximum amount at 1 hr and had decreased by 6 hr as discussed by the authors.

161 citations

Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: The authors presents a book on the concept of genocide on a wide range of recent and historical episodes, including Darfur, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia, with a focus on political violence.
Abstract: * Book on a timely topic by an author of international standing. * First book to really get to grips with the concept of genocide others focus mainly on legal issues or historical material. * Argument is vividly illustrated from a wide range of recent and historical episodes, including Darfur, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia. * Looks at wide range of political violence, helping the book to appeal more widely.

129 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism are discussed. And the history of European ideas: Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 721-722.

13,842 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that norms evolve in a three-stage "life cycle" of emergence, cascades, and internalization, and that each stage is governed by different motives, mechanisms, and behavioral logics.
Abstract: Norms have never been absent from the study of international politics, but the sweeping “ideational turn” in the 1980s and 1990s brought them back as a central theoretical concern in the field. Much theorizing about norms has focused on how they create social structure, standards of appropriateness, and stability in international politics. Recent empirical research on norms, in contrast, has examined their role in creating political change, but change processes have been less well-theorized. We induce from this research a variety of theoretical arguments and testable hypotheses about the role of norms in political change. We argue that norms evolve in a three-stage “life cycle” of emergence, “norm cascades,” and internalization, and that each stage is governed by different motives, mechanisms, and behavioral logics. We also highlight the rational and strategic nature of many social construction processes and argue that theoretical progress will only be made by placing attention on the connections between norms and rationality rather than by opposing the two.

5,761 citations

Book
01 Oct 1999
TL;DR: Wendt as discussed by the authors describes four factors which can drive structural change from one culture to another - interdependence, common fate, homogenization, and self-restraint - and examines the effects of capitalism and democracy in the emergence of a Kantian culture in the West.
Abstract: Drawing upon philosophy and social theory, Social Theory of International Politics develops a theory of the international system as a social construction. Alexander Wendt clarifies the central claims of the constructivist approach, presenting a structural and idealist worldview which contrasts with the individualism and materialism which underpins much mainstream international relations theory. He builds a cultural theory of international politics, which takes whether states view each other as enemies, rivals or friends as a fundamental determinant. Wendt characterises these roles as 'cultures of anarchy', described as Hobbesian, Lockean and Kantian respectively. These cultures are shared ideas which help shape state interests and capabilities, and generate tendencies in the international system. The book describes four factors which can drive structural change from one culture to another - interdependence, common fate, homogenization, and self-restraint - and examines the effects of capitalism and democracy in the emergence of a Kantian culture in the West.

4,573 citations

01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: Familiarity, ease of access, trust, and awareness of risks, will all be important for the future.
Abstract: 萨义德以其独特的双重身份,对西方中心权力话语做了分析,通过对文学作品、演讲演说等文本的解读,将O rie n ta lis m——"东方学",做了三重释义:一门学科、一种思维方式和一种权力话语系统,对东方学权力话语做了系统的批判,同时将东方学放入空间维度对东方学文本做了细致的解读。

3,845 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the far future, evolution will mostly be secular, the slow rearrangement of energy and mass that results from interactions involving collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure, and triaxial dark halos as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract The Universe is in transition. At early times, galactic evolution was dominated by hierarchical clustering and merging, processes that are violent and rapid. In the far future, evolution will mostly be secular—the slow rearrangement of energy and mass that results from interactions involving collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure, and triaxial dark halos. Both processes are important now. This review discusses internal secular evolution, concentrating on one important consequence, the buildup of dense central components in disk galaxies that look like classical, merger-built bulges but that were made slowly out of disk gas. We call these pseudobulges. We begin with an “existence proof”—a review of how bars rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings, and stuff dumped onto the center. The results of numerical simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred galaxies. In the simulations, gas is transported to small radii, where it reaches high densities and...

1,767 citations