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Mary I. Poos

Bio: Mary I. Poos is an academic researcher from National Academies. The author has contributed to research in topics: Dietary Reference Intake & Reference Daily Intake. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 6 publications receiving 10380 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The DRIs represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances.
Abstract: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI activity is a comprehensive effort undertaken to include current concepts about the role of nutrients and food components in long-term health, going beyond deficiency diseases. The DRIs consist of 4 reference intakes: the RDA, which is to be used as a goal for the individual; the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), which is given to assist in advising individuals what levels of intake may result in adverse effects if habitually exceeded; the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the intake level at which the data indicate that the needs for 50% of those consuming it will not be met; and the Adequate Intake (AI), a level judged by the experts developing the reference intakes to meet the needs of all individuals in a group, but which is based on much less data and substantially more judgment than that used in establishing an EAR and subsequently the RDA. When an RDA cannot be set, an AI is given. Both are to be used as goals for an individual. Two reports have been issued providing DRIs for nutrients and food components reviewed to date: these include calcium and its related nutrients: phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride; and most recently, folate, the B vitamins, and choline. The approaches used to determine the DRIs, the reference values themselves, and the plans for future nutrients and food components are discussed. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98: 699–706 .

5,266 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Dietary assessment of groups or individuals must be based on estimates of usual (long-term) intake, and it is inappropriate to use the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or a group mean intake to assess the nutrient adequacy of groups.
Abstract: Objective: To summarise the applications and appropriate use of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) as guidance for nutrition and health research professionals in the dietary assessment of groups and individuals. Design: Key points from the Institute of Medicine report, Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment, are summarised in this paper. The different approaches for using DRIs to evaluate the intakes of groups vs. the intakes of individuals are highlighted. Results: Each of the new DRIs is defined and its role in the dietary assessment of groups and individuals is described. Two methods of group assessment and a new method for quantitative assessment of individuals are described. Illustrations are provided on appropriate use of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Adequate Intake (AI) and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) in dietary assessment. Conclusions: Dietary assessment of groups or individuals must be based on estimates of usual (long-term) intake. The EAR is the appropriate DRI to use in assessing groups and individuals. The AI is of limited value in assessing nutrient adequacy, and cannot be used to assess the prevalence of inadequacy. The UL is the appropriate DRI to use in assessing the proportion of a group at risk of adverse health effects. It is inappropriate to use the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or a group mean intake to assess the nutrient adequacy of groups.

190 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nutrition practitioners will find the new DRIs useful for assessing diets in a variety of settings and computerized assessment systems will be important tools when incorporating these theoretical concepts into dietetic practice.
Abstract: For individuals, a statistical approach is available to compare observed intakes to the EAR or AI (to assess adequacy), and the UL (to assess risk of excess). A more qualitative assessment of intakes involves comparison directly to the RDA to evaluate adequacy, but this is accurate only if long-term usual intake is known. For groups of people, the prevalence of inadequacy can usually be estimated as the proportion with intakes below the EAR, while the prevalence of potentially excessive intakes is estimated as the proportion above the UL. The accuracy of all assessments depends on unbiased and accurate intake estimates as well as a consideration of the effects of day-to-day variation in intake. Nutrition practitioners will find the new DRIs useful for assessing diets in a variety of settings. Computerized assessment systems will be important tools when incorporating these theoretical concepts into dietetic practice.

148 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal of this review is to provide a practical guide to the proper uses of the new DRIs when assessing intakes and allow the calculation of the probability of adequacy for an individual, and the prevalence of inadequacy for a population.
Abstract: New Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are being set by the Institute of Medicine, and represent a new way of defining nutrient intake recommendations. For the first time, the recommendations for the United States and Canada allow the calculation of the probability of adequacy for an individual, and the prevalence of inadequacy for a population. In addition, possible excessive consumption of many nutrients can be evaluated. The goal of this review is to provide a practical guide to the proper uses of the new DRIs when assessing intakes.

62 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: In this paper, a randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (MDE) on the risk of stroke.
Abstract: ABI : ankle–brachial index ACCORD : Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ADVANCE : Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation AGREE : Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation AHA : American Heart Association apoA1 : apolipoprotein A1 apoB : apolipoprotein B CABG : coronary artery bypass graft surgery CARDS : Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study CCNAP : Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions CHARISMA : Clopidogrel for High Athero-thrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilisation, Management, and Avoidance CHD : coronary heart disease CKD : chronic kidney disease COMMIT : Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial CRP : C-reactive protein CURE : Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events CVD : cardiovascular disease DALYs : disability-adjusted life years DBP : diastolic blood pressure DCCT : Diabetes Control and Complications Trial ED : erectile dysfunction eGFR : estimated glomerular filtration rate EHN : European Heart Network EPIC : European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EUROASPIRE : European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events GFR : glomerular filtration rate GOSPEL : Global Secondary Prevention Strategies to Limit Event Recurrence After MI GRADE : Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation HbA1c : glycated haemoglobin HDL : high-density lipoprotein HF-ACTION : Heart Failure and A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise TraiNing HOT : Hypertension Optimal Treatment Study HPS : Heart Protection Study HR : hazard ratio hsCRP : high-sensitivity C-reactive protein HYVET : Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial ICD : International Classification of Diseases IMT : intima-media thickness INVEST : International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril JTF : Joint Task Force LDL : low-density lipoprotein Lp(a) : lipoprotein(a) LpPLA2 : lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy MATCH : Management of Atherothrombosis with Clopidogrel in High-risk Patients with Recent Transient Ischaemic Attack or Ischaemic Stroke MDRD : Modification of Diet in Renal Disease MET : metabolic equivalent MONICA : Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease NICE : National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence NRT : nicotine replacement therapy NSTEMI : non-ST elevation myocardial infarction ONTARGET : Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial OSA : obstructive sleep apnoea PAD : peripheral artery disease PCI : percutaneous coronary intervention PROactive : Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events PWV : pulse wave velocity QOF : Quality and Outcomes Framework RCT : randomized clinical trial RR : relative risk SBP : systolic blood pressure SCORE : Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project SEARCH : Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and SHEP : Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program STEMI : ST-elevation myocardial infarction SU.FOL.OM3 : SUpplementation with FOlate, vitamin B6 and B12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids Syst-Eur : Systolic Hypertension in Europe TNT : Treating to New Targets UKPDS : United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study VADT : Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial VALUE : Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use VITATOPS : VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke VLDL : very low-density lipoprotein WHO : World Health Organization ### 1.1 Introduction Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a chronic disorder developing insidiously throughout life and usually progressing to an advanced stage by the time symptoms occur. It remains the major cause of premature death in Europe, even though CVD mortality has …

7,482 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: WRITING GROUP MEMBERS Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, SCM, FAHA Michael J. Reeves, PhD Matthew Ritchey, PT, DPT, OCS, MPH Carlos J. Jiménez, ScD, SM Lori Chaffin Jordan,MD, PhD Suzanne E. Judd, PhD
Abstract: WRITING GROUP MEMBERS Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, SCM, FAHA Michael J. Blaha, MD, MPH Stephanie E. Chiuve, ScD Mary Cushman, MD, MSc, FAHA Sandeep R. Das, MD, MPH, FAHA Rajat Deo, MD, MTR Sarah D. de Ferranti, MD, MPH James Floyd, MD, MS Myriam Fornage, PhD, FAHA Cathleen Gillespie, MS Carmen R. Isasi, MD, PhD, FAHA Monik C. Jiménez, ScD, SM Lori Chaffin Jordan, MD, PhD Suzanne E. Judd, PhD Daniel Lackland, DrPH, FAHA Judith H. Lichtman, PhD, MPH, FAHA Lynda Lisabeth, PhD, MPH, FAHA Simin Liu, MD, ScD, FAHA Chris T. Longenecker, MD Rachel H. Mackey, PhD, MPH, FAHA Kunihiro Matsushita, MD, PhD, FAHA Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH, FAHA Michael E. Mussolino, PhD, FAHA Khurram Nasir, MD, MPH, FAHA Robert W. Neumar, MD, PhD, FAHA Latha Palaniappan, MD, MS, FAHA Dilip K. Pandey, MBBS, MS, PhD, FAHA Ravi R. Thiagarajan, MD, MPH Mathew J. Reeves, PhD Matthew Ritchey, PT, DPT, OCS, MPH Carlos J. Rodriguez, MD, MPH, FAHA Gregory A. Roth, MD, MPH Wayne D. Rosamond, PhD, FAHA Comilla Sasson, MD, PhD, FAHA Amytis Towfighi, MD Connie W. Tsao, MD, MPH Melanie B. Turner, MPH Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD, FAHA Jenifer H. Voeks, PhD Joshua Z. Willey, MD, MS John T. Wilkins, MD Jason HY. Wu, MSc, PhD, FAHA Heather M. Alger, PhD Sally S. Wong, PhD, RD, CDN, FAHA Paul Muntner, PhD, MHSc On behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2017 Update

7,190 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Author(s): Writing Group Members; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Benjamin, Emelia J; Go, Alan S; Arnett, Donna K; Blaha, Michael J; Cushman, Mary; Das, Sandeep R; de Ferranti, Sarah; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Fullerton, Heather J; Howard, Virginia J; Huffman, Mark D; Isasi, Carmen R; Jimenez, Monik C; Judd, Suzanne
Abstract: Author(s): Writing Group Members; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Benjamin, Emelia J; Go, Alan S; Arnett, Donna K; Blaha, Michael J; Cushman, Mary; Das, Sandeep R; de Ferranti, Sarah; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Fullerton, Heather J; Howard, Virginia J; Huffman, Mark D; Isasi, Carmen R; Jimenez, Monik C; Judd, Suzanne E; Kissela, Brett M; Lichtman, Judith H; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Liu, Simin; Mackey, Rachel H; Magid, David J; McGuire, Darren K; Mohler, Emile R; Moy, Claudia S; Muntner, Paul; Mussolino, Michael E; Nasir, Khurram; Neumar, Robert W; Nichol, Graham; Palaniappan, Latha; Pandey, Dilip K; Reeves, Mathew J; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Rosamond, Wayne; Sorlie, Paul D; Stein, Joel; Towfighi, Amytis; Turan, Tanya N; Virani, Salim S; Woo, Daniel; Yeh, Robert W; Turner, Melanie B; American Heart Association Statistics Committee; Stroke Statistics Subcommittee

6,181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Author(s): Go, Alan S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Roger, Veronique L; Benjamin, Emelia J; Berry, Jarett D; Borden, William B; Bravata, Dawn M; Dai, Shifan; Ford, Earl S; Fox, Caroline S; Franco, Sheila; Fullerton, Heather J; Gillespie, Cathleen; Hailpern, Susan M; Heit, John A; Howard, Virginia J; Huff
Abstract: Author(s): Go, Alan S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Roger, Veronique L; Benjamin, Emelia J; Berry, Jarett D; Borden, William B; Bravata, Dawn M; Dai, Shifan; Ford, Earl S; Fox, Caroline S; Franco, Sheila; Fullerton, Heather J; Gillespie, Cathleen; Hailpern, Susan M; Heit, John A; Howard, Virginia J; Huffman, Mark D; Kissela, Brett M; Kittner, Steven J; Lackland, Daniel T; Lichtman, Judith H; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Magid, David; Marcus, Gregory M; Marelli, Ariane; Matchar, David B; McGuire, Darren K; Mohler, Emile R; Moy, Claudia S; Mussolino, Michael E; Nichol, Graham; Paynter, Nina P; Schreiner, Pamela J; Sorlie, Paul D; Stein, Joel; Turan, Tanya N; Virani, Salim S; Wong, Nathan D; Woo, Daniel; Turner, Melanie B; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee

5,449 citations