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Author

Mohd Nor Faiz Norrrahim

Other affiliations: Universiti Putra Malaysia
Bio: Mohd Nor Faiz Norrrahim is an academic researcher from National Defence University of Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nanocellulose & Materials science. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 50 publications receiving 621 citations. Previous affiliations of Mohd Nor Faiz Norrrahim include Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Papers published on a yearly basis

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the isolation of nanofibrillated cellulose from sugar palm fibres produced by a chemo-mechanical approach was investigated, thus opening a new way to utilize waste products more efficiently.
Abstract: Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre is considered as a waste product of the agricultural industry. This paper is investigating the isolation of nanofibrillated cellulose from sugar palm fibres produced by a chemo-mechanical approach, thus opening a new way to utilize waste products more efficiently. Chemical pre-treatments, namely delignification and mercerization processes, were initially involved to extract the sugar palm cellulose. Then, mechanical pre-treatment was performed by passing the sugar palm cellulose through a refiner to avoid clogging in the subsequent process of high pressurized homogenization. Nanofibrillated cellulose was then characterized by its chemical properties (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), physical morphological properties (i.e. scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis), and thermogravimetric analysis. The nanofibres were attained at 500 bar for 15 cycles with 92% yield. The results showed that the average diameter and length of the nanofibrillated cellulose were found to be 5.5 ± 1.0 nm and several micrometres, respectively. They also displayed higher crystallinity (81.2%) and thermal stability compared to raw fibres, which served its purpose as an effective reinforcing material for use as bio-nanocomposites. The nanocellulose developed promises to be a very versatile material by having a huge potential in many applications, encompassing bio-packaging to scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

185 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Feb 2021-Polymers
TL;DR: In this article, a state-of-the-art review on the influence of utilizing various natural fibers as an alternative material to Kevlar fabric for armor structure system is presented.
Abstract: Even though natural fiber reinforced polymer composites (NFRPCs) have been widely used in automotive and building industries, there is still a room to promote them to high-level structural applications such as primary structural component specifically for bullet proof and ballistic applications. The promising performance of Kevlar fabrics and aramid had widely implemented in numerous ballistic and bullet proof applications including for bullet proof helmets, vest, and other armor parts provides an acceptable range of protection to soldiers. However, disposal of used Kevlar products would affect the disruption of the ecosystem and pollutes the environment. Replacing the current Kevlar fabric and aramid in the protective equipment with natural fibers with enhanced kinetic energy absorption and dissipation has been significant effort to upgrade the ballistic performance of the composite structure with green and renewable resources. The vast availability, low cost and ease of manufacturing of natural fibers have grasped the attention of researchers around the globe in order to study them in heavy armory equipment and high durable products. The possibility in enhancement of natural fiber’s mechanical properties has led the extension of research studies toward the application of NFRPCs for structural and ballistic applications. Hence, this article established a state-of-the-art review on the influence of utilizing various natural fibers as an alternative material to Kevlar fabric for armor structure system. The article also focuses on the effect of layering and sequencing of natural fiber fabric in the composites to advance the current armor structure system.

157 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Apr 2021-Polymers
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the development and conducted studies on PLA-based natural fibre bio-composites over the last decade and present an outline of the present circumstance of natural fibre-reinforced PLA 3D printing, as well as its functions in 4D printing for applications of stimuli-responsive polymers.
Abstract: Over recent years, enthusiasm towards the manufacturing of biopolymers has attracted considerable attention due to the rising concern about depleting resources and worsening pollution. Among the biopolymers available in the world, polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the highest biopolymers produced globally and thus, making it suitable for product commercialisation. Therefore, the effectiveness of natural fibre reinforced PLA composite as an alternative material to substitute the non-renewable petroleum-based materials has been examined by researchers. The type of fibre used in fibre/matrix adhesion is very important because it influences the biocomposites’ mechanical properties. Besides that, an outline of the present circumstance of natural fibre-reinforced PLA 3D printing, as well as its functions in 4D printing for applications of stimuli-responsive polymers were also discussed. This research paper aims to present the development and conducted studies on PLA-based natural fibre bio-composites over the last decade. This work reviews recent PLA-derived bio-composite research related to PLA synthesis and biodegradation, its properties, processes, challenges and prospects.

136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Mar 2021-Polymers
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a critical assessment of a surging class of composite materials and unveil the successful development associated with CNT-incorporated polymer composites, including single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced polymer composite composites.
Abstract: A novel class of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based nanomaterials has been surging since 1991 due to their noticeable mechanical and electrical properties, as well as their good electron transport properties. This is evidence that the development of CNT-reinforced polymer composites could contribute in expanding many areas of use, from energy-related devices to structural components. As a promising material with a wide range of applications, their poor solubility in aqueous and organic solvents has hindered the utilizations of CNTs. The current state of research in CNTs—both single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced polymer composites—was reviewed in the context of the presently employed covalent and non-covalent functionalization. As such, this overview intends to provide a critical assessment of a surging class of composite materials and unveil the successful development associated with CNT-incorporated polymer composites. The mechanisms related to the mechanical, thermal, and electrical performance of CNT-reinforced polymer composites is also discussed. It is vital to understand how the addition of CNTs in a polymer composite alters the microstructure at the micro- and nano-scale, as well as how these modifications influence overall structural behavior, not only in its as fabricated form but also its functionalization techniques. The technological superiority gained with CNT addition to polymer composites may be advantageous, but scientific values are here to be critically explored for reliable, sustainable, and structural reliability in different industrial needs.

133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2022-Polymers
TL;DR: This review is aimed to critically discuss the characteristics of PCL-based biocomposites, which cover each mechanical and thermal properties and their importance towards several applications.
Abstract: Recent developments within the topic of biomaterials has taken hold of researchers due to the mounting concern of current environmental pollution as well as scarcity resources. Amongst all compatible biomaterials, polycaprolactone (PCL) is deemed to be a great potential biomaterial, especially to the tissue engineering sector, due to its advantages, including its biocompatibility and low bioactivity exhibition. The commercialization of PCL is deemed as infant technology despite of all its advantages. This contributed to the disadvantages of PCL, including expensive, toxic, and complex. Therefore, the shift towards the utilization of PCL as an alternative biomaterial in the development of biocomposites has been exponentially increased in recent years. PCL-based biocomposites are unique and versatile technology equipped with several importance features. In addition, the understanding on the properties of PCL and its blend is vital as it is influenced by the application of biocomposites. The superior characteristics of PCL-based green and hybrid biocomposites has expanded their applications, such as in the biomedical field, as well as in tissue engineering and medical implants. Thus, this review is aimed to critically discuss the characteristics of PCL-based biocomposites, which cover each mechanical and thermal properties and their importance towards several applications. The emergence of nanomaterials as reinforcement agent in PCL-based biocomposites was also a tackled issue within this review. On the whole, recent developments of PCL as a potential biomaterial in recent applications is reviewed.

96 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1941-Nature
TL;DR: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, by Prof. Louis Goodman and Prof. Alfred Gilman, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941, p.
Abstract: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics A Textbook of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics for Physicians and Medical Students. By Prof. Louis Goodman and Prof. Alfred Gilman. Pp. xiii + 1383. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941.) 50s. net.

2,686 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1978-Nature
TL;DR: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems as discussed by the authors is an application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for chemical systems. But it is not suitable for biomedical applications.
Abstract: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems Vol 1 Edited by J R Ferraro and L J Basile Pp 311 (Academic: New York, San Francisco and London, 1978) $25; £1625

613 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the various pretreatment strategies currently in use and provide an overview of their utilization for the isolation of high-value bio-polymeric components, including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.
Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is the most abundantly available bioresource amounting to about a global yield of up to 1.3 billion tons per year. The hydrolysis of LCB results in the release of various reducing sugars which are highly valued in the production of biofuels such as bioethanol and biogas, various organic acids, phenols, and aldehydes. The majority of LCB is composed of biological polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are strongly associated with each other by covalent and hydrogen bonds thus forming a highly recalcitrant structure. The presence of lignin renders the bio-polymeric structure highly resistant to solubilization thereby inhibiting the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose which presents a significant challenge for the isolation of the respective bio-polymeric components. This has led to extensive research in the development of various pretreatment techniques utilizing various physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological approaches which are specifically tailored towards the source biomaterial and its application. The objective of this review is to discuss the various pretreatment strategies currently in use and provide an overview of their utilization for the isolation of high-value bio-polymeric components. The article further discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the various pretreatment methodologies as well as addresses the role of various key factors that are likely to have a significant impact on the pretreatment and digestibility of LCB.

594 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same.

423 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a perspective review presents the advancement in the processing techniques, characterizations, future scope and methods to overcome the limitations in biofibers, biopolymers, biofilms, and bio composites.

405 citations