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Norman A. Fleck

Bio: Norman A. Fleck is an academic researcher from University of Cambridge. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ultimate tensile strength & Plasticity. The author has an hindex of 96, co-authored 480 publications receiving 41785 citations. Previous affiliations of Norman A. Fleck include Harvard University & Leibniz Association.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a deformation theory of plasticity is introduced to represent in a phenomenological manner the relative roles of strain hardening and strain gradient hardening, which is a non-linear generalization of Cosserat couple stress theory.
Abstract: Dislocation theory is used to invoke a strain gradient theory of rate independent plasticity. Hardening is assumed to result from the accumulation of both randomly stored and geometrically necessary dislocation. The density of the geometrically necessary dislocations scales with the gradient of plastic strain. A deformation theory of plasticity is introduced to represent in a phenomenological manner the relative roles of strain hardening and strain gradient hardening. The theory is a non-linear generalization of Cosserat couple stress theory. Tension and torsion experiments on thin copper wires confirm the presence of strain gradient hardening. The experiments are interpreted in the light of the new theory.

3,266 citations

Book
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a model for making metal foams characterisation methods and properties of metal foam, and a constitutive model for metal foam design for Creep with Metal Foams Sandwich Structures Energy Management: Packaging and Blast Protection Sound Absorption and Vibration Suppression Thermal Management and Heat Transfer Electrical Properties of metal Foams Cutting, Finishing and Joining Cost Estimation and Viability Case Studies Suppliers of Metal Foam Web Sites Index
Abstract: Introduction Making Metal Foams Characterization Methods Properties of Metal Foams Design Analysis for Material Selection Design Formulae for Simple Structures A Constitutive Model for Metal Foams Design for Creep with Metal Foams Sandwich Structures Energy Management: Packaging and Blast Protection Sound Absorption and Vibration Suppression Thermal Management and Heat Transfer Electrical Properties of Metal Foams Cutting, Finishing and Joining Cost Estimation and Viability Case Studies Suppliers of Metal Foams Web Sites Index .

2,527 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a strain gradient theory of plasticity is introduced, based on the notion of statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocations, which fits within the general framework of couple stress theory and involves a single material length scale l.
Abstract: A Strain Gradient Theory of plasticity is introduced, based on the notion of statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocations. The strain gradient theory fits within the general framework of couple stress theory and involves a single material length scale l. Minimum principles are developed for both deformation and flow theory versions of the theory which in the limit of vanishing l, reduce to their conventional counterparts: J2 deformation and J2 flow theory. The strain gradient theory is used to calculate the size effect associated with macroscopic strengthening due to a dilute concentration of bonded rigid particles; similarly, predictions are given for the effect of void size upon the macroscopibic softening due to a dilute concentration of voids. Constitutive potentials are derived for this purpose.

1,300 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effective mechanical properties of the octet-truss lattice structured material have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically, and the intervention of elastic buckling of the struts is also analysed in an approximate manner.
Abstract: The effective mechanical properties of the octet-truss lattice structured material have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Analytical and FE calculations of the elastic properties and plastic yielding collapse surfaces are reported. The intervention of elastic buckling of the struts is also analysed in an approximate manner. Good agreement is found between the predictions of the strength and experimental observations from tests on the octet-truss material made from a casting aluminium alloy. Moreover, the strength and stiffness of the octet-truss material are stretching-dominated and compare favourably with the corresponding properties of metallic foams. Thus, the octet-truss lattice material can be considered as a promising alternative to metallic foams in lightweight structures.

1,260 citations


Cited by
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01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the current understanding of the mechanics governing elastic-plastic indentation as they pertain to load and depth-sensing indentation testing of monolithic materials and provide an update of how they now implement the method to make the most accurate mechanical property measurements.
Abstract: The method we introduced in 1992 for measuring hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation techniques has widely been adopted and used in the characterization of small-scale mechanical behavior. Since its original development, the method has undergone numerous refinements and changes brought about by improvements to testing equipment and techniques as well as from advances in our understanding of the mechanics of elastic–plastic contact. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanics governing elastic–plastic indentation as they pertain to load and depth-sensing indentation testing of monolithic materials and provide an update of how we now implement the method to make the most accurate mechanical property measurements. The limitations of the method are also discussed.

6,616 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the main 3D printing methods, materials and their development in trending applications was carried out in this paper, where the revolutionary applications of AM in biomedical, aerospace, buildings and protective structures were discussed.
Abstract: Freedom of design, mass customisation, waste minimisation and the ability to manufacture complex structures, as well as fast prototyping, are the main benefits of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. A comprehensive review of the main 3D printing methods, materials and their development in trending applications was carried out. In particular, the revolutionary applications of AM in biomedical, aerospace, buildings and protective structures were discussed. The current state of materials development, including metal alloys, polymer composites, ceramics and concrete, was presented. In addition, this paper discussed the main processing challenges with void formation, anisotropic behaviour, the limitation of computer design and layer-by-layer appearance. Overall, this paper gives an overview of 3D printing, including a survey on its benefits and drawbacks as a benchmark for future research and development.

4,159 citations