scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Sara M. Gaytan

Other affiliations: University of Texas System
Bio: Sara M. Gaytan is an academic researcher from University of Texas at El Paso. The author has contributed to research in topics: Microstructure & Transmission electron microscopy. The author has an hindex of 29, co-authored 54 publications receiving 6710 citations. Previous affiliations of Sara M. Gaytan include University of Texas System.

Papers published on a yearly basis

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative study of selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) is presented for the fabrication of complex, multi-functional metal or alloy monoliths by CAD-directed, selective melting of precursor powder beds.

1,144 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the Inconel 718 cylinders were fabricated by selective laser melting in either argon or nitrogen gas from a pre-alloyed powder, and they exhibited columnar grains and arrays of oblate ellipsoidal precipitates oriented in a strong [2.0.0] texture determined by combined optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis.

868 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The microstructure and mechanical behavior of simple product geometries produced by layered manufacturing using the electron beam melting (EBM) process and the selective laser melting (SLM) process are compared with those characteristic of conventional wrought and cast products of Ti-6Al-4V.
Abstract: The microstructure and mechanical behavior of simple product geometries produced by layered manufacturing using the electron beam melting (EBM) process and the selective laser melting (SLM) process are compared with those characteristic of conventional wrought and cast products of Ti-6Al-4V. Microstructures are characterized utilizing optical metallography (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and included alpha (hcp), beta (bcc) and alpha(') (hcp) martensite phase regimes which give rise to hardness variations ranging from HRC 37 to 57 and tensile strengths ranging from 0.9 to 1.45 GPa. The advantages and disadvantages of layered manufacturing utilizing initial powders in custom building of biomedical components by EBM and SLM in contrast to conventional manufacturing from Ti-6Al-4V wrought bar stock are discussed.

830 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Prospects for the manufacture of patient-specific biomedical implants replacing hard tissues (bone), particularly knee and hip stems and large bone (femoral) intramedullary rods, using additive manufacturing (AM) by electron beam melting (EBM) are examined.
Abstract: In this paper, we examine prospects for the manufacture of patient-specific biomedical implants replacing hard tissues (bone), particularly knee and hip stems and large bone (femoral) intramedullary rods, using additive manufacturing (AM) by electron beam melting (EBM). Of particular interest is the fabrication of complex functional (biocompatible) mesh arrays. Mesh elements or unit cells can be divided into different regions in order to use different cell designs in different areas of the component to produce various or continually varying (functionally graded) mesh densities. Numerous design elements have been used to fabricate prototypes by AM using EBM of Ti-6Al-4V powders, where the densities have been compared with the elastic (Young) moduli determined by resonant frequency and damping analysis. Density optimization at the bone-implant interface can allow for bone ingrowth and cementless implant components. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of metal (aluminium alloy) foam have also allowed for the building of Ti-6Al-4V foams by embedding the digital-layered scans in computer-aided design or software models for EBM. Variations in mesh complexity and especially strut (or truss) dimensions alter the cooling and solidification rate, which alters the alpha-phase (hexagonal close-packed) microstructure by creating mixtures of alpha/alpha' (martensite) observed by optical and electron metallography. Microindentation hardness measurements are characteristic of these microstructures and microstructure mixtures (alpha/alpha') and sizes.

536 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an exploratory characterization and comparison of electron-beam melted (EBM) or rapid manufacturing (RM) of Ti-6Al-4V components (from nominal 30mm diameter powder) with wrought products is presented.

502 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the emerging research on additive manufacturing of metallic materials is provided in this article, which provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts.

4,192 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the main 3D printing methods, materials and their development in trending applications was carried out in this paper, where the revolutionary applications of AM in biomedical, aerospace, buildings and protective structures were discussed.
Abstract: Freedom of design, mass customisation, waste minimisation and the ability to manufacture complex structures, as well as fast prototyping, are the main benefits of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. A comprehensive review of the main 3D printing methods, materials and their development in trending applications was carried out. In particular, the revolutionary applications of AM in biomedical, aerospace, buildings and protective structures were discussed. The current state of materials development, including metal alloys, polymer composites, ceramics and concrete, was presented. In addition, this paper discussed the main processing challenges with void formation, anisotropic behaviour, the limitation of computer design and layer-by-layer appearance. Overall, this paper gives an overview of 3D printing, including a survey on its benefits and drawbacks as a benchmark for future research and development.

4,159 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art of additive manufacturing (AM) can be classified into three categories: direct digital manufacturing, free-form fabrication, or 3D printing as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

4,055 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials are reviewed, and the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts are discussed.
Abstract: Natural structural materials are built at ambient temperature from a fairly limited selection of components. They usually comprise hard and soft phases arranged in complex hierarchical architectures, with characteristic dimensions spanning from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The resulting materials are lightweight and often display unique combinations of strength and toughness, but have proven difficult to mimic synthetically. Here, we review the common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials, and discuss the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts.

3,083 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the complex relationship between additive manufacturing processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals, and typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented.

2,837 citations