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Tomislav Sokol

Bio: Tomislav Sokol is an academic researcher from Zagreb School of Economics and Management. The author has contributed to research in topics: Health care & European union. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 11 publications receiving 24 citations. Previous affiliations of Tomislav Sokol include The Catholic University of America & Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The European Court of Justice (ECJ) strengthened the right to health care in other Member States, but this cannot create an equal right for health care when Member States are so different as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Social citizenship is about equality. The obvious problem for European social citizenship in a very diverse Union is that Member States will not be able or willing to bear the cost of establishing equal rights to health care and similar aspects of social citizenship. Health care is a particularly good case of this tension between EU citizenship and Member State diversity. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) strengthened the right to health care in other Member States, but this cannot create an equal right to health care when Member States are so different. In its efforts to balance a European right, the Court has formulated ‘rules for rights’—not so much European social citizenship rights, as a set of legal principles by which it judges the decisions of the Member States.

11 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Specific topics regulated in the Cross-Border Health Care Directive, including prior authorisation, establishing national contact points, e-health, mutual recognition of prescriptions, and the co-operation on health technology assessment are addressed.
Abstract: On October 25, 2013, a new era in the patient mobility debate began with the entering into force of the Cross-Border Health Care Directive (2011/24). This legal document allows EU citizens to seek healthcare in other Member States. The Directive is the result of a number of rulings by the Court of Justice of the EU on reimbursement claims for medical treatment abroad based on the free movement principles. After its formal approval by the European Parliament (2011), Member States have been working to incorporate the Directive into national law. The question is whether they have been successful, and if so, whether their legal framework is Europe-proof. This article addresses specific topics regulated in the Directive, including prior authorisation, establishing national contact points, e-health, mutual recognition of prescriptions, and the co-operation on health technology assessment. Moreover, a three-country analysis is presented, covering Croatia, Italy and the Netherlands. Representing different health care systems, each of these Member States seems to have dealt with the Directive in its own way, though respecting the underlying principles. The diversity also reveals the unique problems countries are facing when implementing the Directive. At the same time, there are several commonalities indicating signs of a so-called Europeanisation of health care systems.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the implementation of the eaw Framework Decision within Croatia and determine whether the manner in which the said Member State has carried out the implementation has highlighted a risk for the functioning of judicial cooperation in criminal matters within the eu.
Abstract: Croatian accession to the eu included the implementation of the Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States. The way Croatia implemented the eaw Framework Decision, however, has resulted in controversies and public attention, both in Croatia and other Member States, revealing many problems within the system of judicial cooperation in criminal matters within the eu. The aim of the paper is to investigate the implementation of the eaw Framework Decision within Croatia; to determine whether the manner in which the said Member State has carried out the implementation has highlighted a risk for the functioning of judicial cooperation in criminal matters within the eu; and which legal measures should be used in order to prevent disintegration of the cooperation from happening. Several legal measures are proposed, both on the national and the European level, to prevent the risk of further undermining the system of judicial cooperation within the eu. These measures are presented within the context of several overarching legal principles like (providing clearer definition of the notion of) non-verification of double criminality and protection of legal interests of the Member States issuing the European Arrest Warrant.

2 citations

01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: The aim of the paper is to analyse the transposition of the Patients' Rights Directive in England and Ireland, to determine whether the Directive may result in some level of convergence of these Member States’ social health care systems and present some possible trends in the years to come.
Abstract: The role of the European Union has been steadily increasing in the area of cross-border health care, namely occurrences of patients receiving health care in other Member States, outside of their country of social health protection. These developments have reached an important milestone with the adoption of the secondary EU legislation regulating the issue (Patients’ Rights Directive) the transposition period of which ended on 25 October 2013. Some of the countries where the Directive has been transposed are England (UK) and Ireland, although the latter failed to meet the transposition deadline by several months. The aim of the paper is to analyse the transposition of the Patients’ Rights Directive in England and Ireland, to determine whether the Directive may result in some level of convergence of these Member States’ social health care systems and present some possible trends in the years to come. The analysis shows that variations between the national social health systems are still significant, with the Directive representing a limited tool of overcoming the said differences.

2 citations


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Book
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: The European Union health law and the global context: consumerism, rights, justice and equality: human organs and access to essential medicines, opportunities and threats: health knowledge, communicable diseases, global food and tobacco law.
Abstract: Part I. Introduction: 1. Introduction 2. What is health law? 3. What is European Union health law? Part II. EU Internal Health Law: The Individual Focus: 4. Consumerism: the moving patient 5. Consumerism: the moving health product or service 6. Consumerism: the moving health care professional 7. Rights: health rights as human rights 8. Rights: mobile patients' rights as human rights Part III. EU Internal Health Law: The Systemic Focus: 9. Competition, solidarity, equality: health insurance 10. Competition, solidarity, equality: health institutions and professions 11. Competition, solidarity, equality: the pharmaceuticals, medical devices and medical equipment industries 12. Risk: clinical trials 13. Risk: health system products - pharmaceuticals 14. Risk: health system products - human blood, tissue and cells, organs medical devices 15. Risk: tobacco, food, alcohol Part IV. EU External Health Law: 16. The global context: institutions and instruments 17. The global context: consumerism, rights, justice and equality: human organs and access to essential medicines 18. The global context: opportunities and threats: health knowledge, communicable diseases, global food and tobacco law Part V. Conclusions: 19. Conclusion.

82 citations

01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: The aim is to identify how financing mechanisms may contribute to the functioning of primary care especially in connection to the integration of care, both within primary care and in relation to other sectors.
Abstract: Představte si zdravotnickeho odbornika v kterekoli evropske zemi, který usnul v roce 1960 a probudil se ve zdravotnickem zařizeni v roce 2019. Hodně z toho, co by pozorovatel viděl, by bylo uplně jine. Bylo by mnohem vice pacientů, kteři přežili do staři diky pokrokům v terapii. Mnoho z osetřeni, ktere dostavali, by bylo mnohem složitějsi, zahrnovalo radikalně nove techniky, jako je laparoskopicka nebo dokonce roboticka chirurgie, a byl by ohromen pokrokem v diagnostickem rozsahu. Přesto by se v mnoha zdravotnických systemech některe věci změnily jen velmi malo. Mezi nimi by byly tradicni role různých typů zdravotnických pracovniků, přicemž odpovědnost za urcitý ukol by byla vyhrazena těm, kteři maji zvlastni kvalifikaci založenou spise na zvyklostech a praxi než na důkazech. Toto stanovisko tvrdi, že se tato situace musi změnit. Nyni existuje impozantni soubor důkazů, že věci lze casto dělat jinak. To neznamena, že by měli být jinak dělany. Změna je vhodna pouze tam, kde pomaha dosahovat cilů zdravotnickeho systemu a umožňuje ji poskytovat lepsi peci způsoby, ktere lepe reaguji na potřeby uživatelů. Ukoly lze převadět ze zdravotnických pracovniků na pacienty a jejich pecovatele, na stroje a dalsi zdravotnicke pracovniky. Tam, kde byly tyto posuny vyhodnoceny, jsou casto, ale ne vždy, spojeny s výsledky, ktere jsou stejně dobre nebo dokonce lepsi než za soucasneho stavu. Výsledky jsou vsak casto zavisle na kontextu a nelze předpokladat, že to, co funguje v jedne situaci, se bude vztahovat stejně na jine. Důležitý je důkaz spise než tradicni, ale casto zastarala pravidla. Pokud zdravotni system může zajistit, že osoby, ktere jsou pro ně nejvhodnějsi, plni spravně alokovane ukoly, zlepsi se pece o pacienty. Změna je vsak casto obtižna. Zucastněne strany musi být přesvědceny o důvodech změny a musi být podporovany při jejich provaděni. Musi uznat, že každa změna roli bude mit dopad na jejich stav, a tedy na existujici hierarchie. Může být take třeba změnit zastarale legislativni nebo regulacni překažky. Nakonec je nezbytne, aby byly změny vyhodnoceny, výsledky zdokumentovany a vedly k ponauceni, co funguje a za jakých okolnosti. Posun ukolů, cinnosti a kompetenci, pokud je založen na spolehlivých důkazech a je ucinně provaděn, může významně přispět k lepsim výsledkům v oblasti zdravi a k udržitelnosti zdravotnich systemů. Nejedna se vsak o vselek na vsechny výzvy, kterým zdravotnicke systemy celi.

37 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There are poorly documented variations in the journey a skin cancer patient will follow from diagnosis to treatment in the European Union.
Abstract: Summary Background There are poorly documented variations in the journey a skin cancer patient will follow from diagnosis to treatment in the European Union. Objectives To investigate the possible difficulties or obstacles that a person with a skin malignancy in the European Union may have to overcome in order to receive adequate medical screening and care for his/her condition. In addition, we wished to explore differences in European health systems, which may lead to health inequalities and health inequities within Europe. Methods Ten European countries took part in this investigation (in alphabetical order): Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Poland, Romania, Spain, the Netherlands and the U.K. The individual participants undertook local and national enquiries within their own country and completed a questionnaire. Results This exercise has identified important differences in the management of a skin cancer patient, reflecting major disparities in health care between European countries. Conclusions Further investigation of health disparities and efforts to address health inequalities should lead to improvements in European health care quality and reduction in morbidity from skin cancer.

21 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In 2011, the Patients' Rights in Cross-border Health Care Directive was adopted as mentioned in this paper, which is meant, inter alia, to implement the case law of the Court of Justice on patient mobility.
Abstract: In 2011 the Patients' Rights in Cross-border Health Care Directive was adopted. This Directive is meant, inter alia, to implement the case law of the Court of Justice on patient mobility. This arti...

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a bibliometric analysis discovered the following elements: (1) The main articles are based on guest services, management, leadership principles applied, hotel services associated with healthcare, marketing variables and elements that guide the choice in medical tourism; (2) the main authors do not deal with tourism but are involved in various ways in the national health system of the countries of origin or in WHO; (3) cost-efficiency and analytical accounting linked to medical tourism structures and destination choices are not yet developed topics.
Abstract: Medical tourism is an expanding phenomenon. Scientific studies address the changes and challenges of the present and future trend. However, no research considers the study of bibliometric variables and area of business, management and accounting. This bibliometric analysis discovered the following elements: (1) The main articles are based on guest services, management, leadership principles applied, hotel services associated with healthcare, marketing variables and elements that guide the choice in medical tourism; (2) The main authors do not deal with tourism but are involved in various ways in the national health system of the countries of origin or in WHO; (3)cost-efficiency and analytical accounting linked to medical tourism structures and destination choices are not yet developed topics.

17 citations