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Author

William H. Prosser

Bio: William H. Prosser is an academic researcher from Langley Research Center. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Acoustic emission & Acoustic wave. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 54 publication(s) receiving 1137 citation(s).


Papers
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TL;DR: The ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated and theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.
Abstract: Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the A0, A1, S0, and S2 Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along, and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.

209 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the Lamb wave velocity is compared to modulus measurements obtained using strain gage measurements in the first experiment and the velocity is monitored along with the crack density in the second.
Abstract: Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of evaluating composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a structure, an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb wave measurements can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper describes two studies which monitor fatigue damage and two studies which monitor thermal damage in composites using Lamb waves. In the fatigue studies, the Lamb wave velocity is compared to modulus measurements obtained using strain gage measurements in the first experiment and the velocity is monitored along with the crack density in the second. In the thermal damage studies, one examines samples which were exposed to varying temperatures for a three minute duration and the second includes rapid thermal damage in composites by intense laser beams. In all studies, the Lamb wave velocity is demonstrated to be an excellent method to monitor damage in composites.

112 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a comparison between two approaches to predict acoustic emission waveforms in thin plates was made using properties for both isotropic (aluminum) and anisotropic (unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite) materials.
Abstract: A comparison was made between two approaches to predict acoustic emission waveforms in thin plates. A normal mode solution method for Mindlin plate theory was used to predict the response of the flexural plate mode to a point source, step-function load, applied on the plate surface. The second approach used a dynamic finite element method to model the problem using equations of motion based on exact linear elasticity. Calculations were made using properties for both isotropic (aluminum) and anisotropic (unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite) materials. For simulations of anisotropic plates, propagation along multiple directions was evaluated. In general, agreement between the two theoretical approaches was good. Discrepancies in the waveforms at longer times were caused by differences in reflections from the lateral plate boundaries. These differences resulted from the fact that the two methods used different boundary conditions. At shorter times in the signals, before reflections, the slight discrepancies in the waveforms were attributed to limitations of Mindlin plate theory, which is an approximate plate theory. The advantages of the finite element method are that it used the exact linear elasticity solutions, and that it can be used to model real source conditions and complicated, finite specimen geometries as well as thick plates. These advantages come at a cost of increased computational difficulty, requiring lengthy calculations on workstations or supercomputers. The Mindlin plat theory solutions, meanwhile, can be quickly generated on personal computers. Specimens with finite geometry can also be modeled. However, only limited simple geometries such as circular or rectangular plates can easily be accommodated with the normal mode solution technique. Likewise, very limited source configurations can be modeled and plate theory is applicable only to thin plates.

82 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a high fidelity transducer was used to determine the direction of motion of a source in the case of aluminum and graphite/epoxy composite materials using the Reissner-Mindlin theory combined with lamination theory.
Abstract: Acoustic emission was interpreted as modes of vibration in finite aluminum and graphite/epoxy plates. The `thin plate'' case of classical plate theory was used to predict dispersion curves for the two fundamental modes described by the theory and to calculate the shapes of flexural waveforms produced by a vertical step function loading. There was good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results for the aluminum. Composite materials required the use of a higher order plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) combined with lamination theory in order to get good agreement with the measured velocities. Plate modes were shown to be useful for determining the direction of motion of a source. Thus, with a knowledge of the material, it may be possible to ascertain the type of the source. For example, particle impact on a plate could be distinguished from a crack growing in the plate. A high fidelity transducer was needed to distinguish the plate modes. After evaluating several types of transducers, a broadband ultrasonic transducer was found which satisfied the fidelity requirement and had adequate sensitivity over the 0.1 to 1 MHz range. The waveforms were digitized with a 5 MHz transient recorder. The dispersion curves were determined from the phase spectra of the time dependent waveforms. The aluminum plates were loaded by breaking a 0.5 mm. pencil lead against the surface of the plate. By machining slots at various angles to the plane of a plate, the direction in which the force acted was varied. Changing the direction of the source motion produced regular variations in the measured waveforms. Four composite plates with different laminate stacking sequences were studied. To demonstrate applicability beyond simple plates, waveforms produced by lead breaks on a thin-walled composite tube were also shown to be interpretable as plate modes. The tube design was based on the type of struts proposed for Space Station Freedom''s trussed structures.

77 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities are characterized and understood. And the authors apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures.
Abstract: Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been successfully used to evaluate damage mechanisms in laboratory testing of composite coupons. An example is presented in which the initiation of transverse matrix cracking was monitored. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. To demonstrate these effects, measurements of the far field, peak amplitude attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels are discussed. These measurements demonstrated that the flexural mode attenuation is dominated by dispersion effects. Thus, it is significantly affected by the thickness of the composite plate. Furthermore, the flexural mode attenuation can be significantly larger than that of the extensional mode even though its peak amplitude consists of much lower frequency components.

53 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: A comprehensive review on the state of the art of Lamb wave-based damage identification approaches for composite structures, addressing the advances and achievements in these techniques in the past decades, is provided in this paper.
Abstract: The guided Lamb wave is widely acknowledged as one of the most encouraging tools for quantitative identification of damage in composite structures, and relevant research has been conducted intensively since the 1980s. The main aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review on the state of the art of Lamb wave-based damage identification approaches for composite structures, addressing the advances and achievements in these techniques in the past decades. Major emphasis is placed on the unique characteristics and mechanisms of Lamb waves in laminated composites; approaches in wave mode selection, generation and collection; modelling and numerical simulation techniques; signal processing and identification algorithms; and sensor network technology for practical utility. Representative case studies are also briefly described in terms of various experimental validations and applications.

1,168 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the capability of embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to excite and detect tuned Lamb waves for structural health monitoring is explored.
Abstract: The capability of embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to excite and detect tuned Lamb waves for structural health monitoring is explored. First, a brief review of Lamb waves theory is presented. Second, the PWAS operating principles and their structural coupling through a thin adhesive layer are analyzed. Then, a model of the Lamb waves tuning mechanism with PWAS transducers is described. The model uses the space domain Fourier transform. The analysis is performed in the wavenumber space. The inverse Fourier transform is used to return into the physical space. The integrals are evaluated with the residues theorem. A general solution is obtained for a generic expression of the interface shear stress distribution. The general solution is reduced to a closed-form expression for the case of ideal bonding which admits a closed-form Fourier transform of the interfacial shear stress. It is shown that the strain wave response varies like sin a, whereas the displacement response varies like sinc a. ...

811 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors presented an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in situ damage detection of composite materials, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes.
Abstract: Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in situ damage detection of composite materials. Experimental results are presented for the application of Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy test specimens containing representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes. Linear wave scans were performed on narrow laminated specimens and sandwich beams with various cores by monitoring the transmitted waves with piezoceramic sensors. Optimal actuator and sensor configurations were devised through experimentation, and various types of driving signal were explored. These experiments provided a procedure capable of easily and accurately determining the time of flight of a Lamb wave pulse between an actuator and sensor. Lamb wave techniques provide more information about damage presence and severity than previously tested methods (frequency response techniques), and provide the possibility of determining damage location due to their local response nature. These methods may prove suitable for structural health monitoring applications since they travel long distances and can be applied with conformable piezoelectric actuators and sensors that require little power.

700 citations

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TL;DR: The structural health monitoring (SHM) system is of primary importance because it is the structure that provides the integrity of the system, and the related non-destructive test and evaluation methods are discussed in this review.
Abstract: Renewable energy sources have gained much attention due to the recent energy crisis and the urge to get clean energy. Among the main options being studied, wind energy is a strong contender because of its reliability due to the maturity of the technology, good infrastructure and relative cost competitiveness. In order to harvest wind energy more efficiently, the size of wind turbines has become physically larger, making maintenance and repair works difficult. In order to improve safety considerations, to minimize down time, to lower the frequency of sudden breakdowns and associated huge maintenance and logistic costs and to provide reliable power generation, the wind turbines must be monitored from time to time to ensure that they are in good condition. Among all the monitoring systems, the structural health monitoring (SHM) system is of primary importance because it is the structure that provides the integrity of the system. SHM systems and the related non-destructive test and evaluation methods are discussed in this review. As many of the methods function on local damage, the types of damage that occur commonly in relation to wind turbines, as well as the damage hot spots, are also included in this review.

667 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the second-order acousto-elastic coefficient (SOC) was measured in a variety of materials including plastics, metals, composites and adhesives.
Abstract: The ultimate strength of most structural materials is mainly limited by the presence of microscopic imperfections serving as nuclei of the fracture process. Since these nuclei are considerably shorter than the acoustic wavelength at the frequencies normally used in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE), linear acoustic characteristics are not sufficiently sensitive to this kind of microscopic degradation of the material's integrity. On the other hand, even very small imperfections can produce very significant excess nonlinearity which can be orders of magnitude higher than the intrinsic nonlinearity of the intact material. The excess nonlinearity is produced mainly by the strong local nonlinearity of microcracks whose opening is smaller than the particle displacement. Parametric modulation via crack-closure significantly increases the stress-dependence of fatigued materials. A special experimental technique was introduced to measure the second-order acousto-elastic coefficient in a great variety of materials including plastics, metals, composites and adhesives. Experimental results are presented to illustrate that the nonlinear acoustic parameters are earlier and more sensitive indicators of fatigue damage than their linear counterparts.

399 citations