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JournalISSN: 0016-6707

Genetica 

Springer Science+Business Media
About: Genetica is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Karyotype. It has an ISSN identifier of 0016-6707. Over the lifetime, 4462 publications have been published receiving 104938 citations. The journal is also known as: Genetica (The Hague).


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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2009-Genetica
TL;DR: A method to find the optimum index to maximise long term selection response is derived and varies the weight given to a marker according to its frequency such that markers where the favourable allele has low frequency receive more weight in the index.
Abstract: Genomic selection refers to the use of dense markers covering the whole genome to estimate the breeding value of selection candidates for a quantitative trait. This paper considers prediction of breeding value based on a linear combination of the markers. In this case the best estimate of each marker’s effect is the expectation of the effect conditional on the data. To calculate this requires a prior distribution of marker effects. If the marker effects are normally distributed with constant variance, BLUP can be used to calculate the estimated effects of the markers and hence the estimated breeding value (EBV). In this case the model is equivalent to a conventional animal model in which the relationship matrix among the animals is estimated from the markers instead of the pedigree. The accuracy of the EBV can approach 1.0 but a very large amount of data is required. An alternative model was investigated in which only some markers have non-zero effects and these effects follow a reflected exponential distribution. In this case the expected effect of a marker is a non-linear function of the data such that apparently small effects are regressed back almost to zero and consequently these markers can be deleted from the model. The accuracy in this case is considerably higher than when marker effects are normally distributed. If genomic selection is practiced for several generations the response declines in a manner that can be predicted from the marker allele frequencies. Genomic selection is likely to lead to a more rapid decline in the selection response than phenotypic selection unless new markers are continually added to the prediction of breeding value. A method to find the optimum index to maximise long term selection response is derived. This index varies the weight given to a marker according to its frequency such that markers where the favourable allele has low frequency receive more weight in the index.

991 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1998-Genetica
TL;DR: The beneficial mutation rate and the distribution of mutational effects from changes in mean fitness in an evolving E. coli population are estimated.
Abstract: In sexual populations, beneficial mutations that occur in different lineages may be recombined into a single lineage. In asexual populations, however, clones that carry such alternative beneficial mutations compete with one another and, thereby, interfere with the expected progression of a given mutation to fixation. From theoretical exploration of such ‘clonal interference’, we have derived (1) a fixation probability for beneficial mutations, (2) an expected substitution rate, (3) an expected coefficient of selection for realized substitutions, (4) an expected rate of fitness increase, (5) the probability that a beneficial mutation transiently achieves polymorphic frequency (≥ 1%), and (6) the probability that a beneficial mutation transiently achieves majority status. Based on (2) and (3), we were able to estimate the beneficial mutation rate and the distribution of mutational effects from changes in mean fitness in an evolving E. coli population.

970 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2001-Genetica
TL;DR: It is suggested that opportunities for population growth may be a key factor that promotes rapid evolution, since directional selection might otherwise be expected to cause population decline and create the potential for local extinction, which is an ever-present alternative to local adaptation.
Abstract: Under what conditions might organisms be capable of rapid adaptive evolution? We reviewed published studies documenting contemporary adaptations in natural populations and looked for general patterns in the population ecological causes. We found that studies of contemporary adaptation fall into two general settings: (1) colonization of new environments that established newly adapted populations, and (2) local adaptations within the context of a heterogeneous environments and metapopulation structure. Local ecological processes associated with colonizations and introductions included exposure to: (1) a novel host or food resource; (2) a new biophysical environment; (3) a new predator community; and (4) a new coexisting competitor. The new environments that were colonized often had depauperate communities, sometimes because of anthropogenic disturbance. Local adaptation in heterogeneous environments was also often associated with recent anthropogenic changes, such as insecticide and herbicide resistance, or industrial melanism. A common feature of many examples is the combination of directional selection with at least a short-term opportunity for population growth. We suggest that such opportunities for population growth may be a key factor that promotes rapid evolution, since directional selection might otherwise be expected to cause population decline and create the potential for local extinction, which is an ever-present alternative to local adaptation. We also address the large discrepancy between the rate of evolution observed in contemporary studies and the apparent rate of evolution seen in the fossil record.

806 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2002-Genetica
TL;DR: Limited evidence is provided to support the existence of an approximately linear relationship between total transposable element DNA and genome size.
Abstract: It is generally accepted that the wide variation in genome size observed among eukaryotic species is more closely correlated with the amount of repetitive DNA than with the number of coding genes. Major types of repetitive DNA include transposable elements, satellite DNAs, simple sequences and tandem repeats, but reliable estimates of the relative contributions of these various types to total genome size have been hard to obtain. With the advent of genome sequencing, such information is starting to become available, but no firm conclusions can yet be made from the limited data currently available. Here, the ways in which transposable elements contribute both directly and indirectly to genome size variation are explored. Limited evidence is provided to support the existence of an approximately linear relationship between total transposable element DNA and genome size. Copy numbers per family are low and globally constrained in small genomes, but vary widely in large genomes. Thus, the partial release of transposable element copy number constraints appears to be a major characteristic of large genomes.

582 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1995-Genetica
TL;DR: A method is proposed for allowing for the effects of population differentiation, and other factors, in forensic inference based on DNA profiles, which is currently used in some UK courts and has important advantages over the ‘Ceiling Principle’ method, which has been criticized on a number of grounds.
Abstract: A method is proposed for allowing for the effects of population differentiation, and other factors, in forensic inference based on DNA profiles. Much current forensic practice ignores, for example, the effects of coancestry and inappropriate databases and is consequently systematically biased against defendants. Problems with the 'product rule' for forensic identification have been highlighted by several authors, but important aspects of the problems are not widely appreciated. This arises in part because the match probability has often been confused with the relative frequency of the profile. Further, the analogous problems in paternity cases have received little attention. The proposed method is derived under general assumptions about the underlying population genetic processes. Probabilities relevant to forensic inference are expressed in terms of a single parameter whose values can be chosen to reflect the specific circumstances. The method is currently used in some UK courts and has important advantages over the 'Ceiling Principle' method, which has been criticized on a number of grounds.

537 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
202313
202241
202135
202026
201938
201851