Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry
Mineralogical Society of America
About: Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry is an academic journal published by Mineralogical Society of America. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Mantle (geology) & Silicate. It has an ISSN identifier of 1529-6466. Over the lifetime, 1087 publications have been published receiving 132040 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The importance of zircon in crustal evolution studies is underscored by its predominant use in U-Th-Pb geochronology and investigations of the temporal evolution of both the crust and lithospheric mantle as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Zircon is the main mineral in the majority of igneous and metamorphic rocks with Zr as an essential structural constituent. It is a host for significant fractions of the whole-rock abundance of U, Th, Hf, and the REE (Sawka 1988, Bea 1996, O’Hara et al. 2001). These elements are important geochemically as process indicators or parent isotopes for age determination. The importance of zircon in crustal evolution studies is underscored by its predominant use in U-Th-Pb geochronology and investigations of the temporal evolution of both the crust and lithospheric mantle. In the past decade an increasing interest in the composition of zircon, trace-elements in particular, has been motivated by the effort to better constrain in situ microprobe-acquired isotopic ages. Electron-beam compositional imaging and isotope-ratio measurement by in situ beam techniques—and the micrometer-scale spatial resolution that is possible—has revealed in many cases that single zircon crystals contain a record of multiple geologic events. Such events can either be zircon-consuming, alteration, or zircon-forming and may be separated in time by millions or billions of years. In many cases, calculated zircon isotopic ages do not coincide with ages of geologic events determined from other minerals or from whole-rock analysis. To interpret the geologic validity and significance of multiple ages, and ages unsupported by independent analysis of other isotopic systems, has been the impetus for most past investigations of zircon composition. Some recent compositional investigations of zircon have not been directly related to geochronology, but to the ability of zircon to influence or record petrogenetic processes in igneous and metamorphic systems. Sedimentary rocks may also contain a significant fraction of zircon. Although authigenic zircon has been reported (Saxena 1966, Baruah et al. 1995, Hower et al. 1999), it appears to be very rare and may in fact be related to …
TL;DR: In this paper, a selection of both the most typical, but also of the less common, features seen in zircon, categorized according to the different geological processes responsible for their formation are presented.
Abstract: The mineral zircon is extremely variable both in terms of external morphology and internal textures. These features reflect the geologic history of the mineral, especially the relevant episode(s) of magmatic or metamorphic crystallization (and recrystallization), strain imposed both by external forces and by internal volume expansion caused by metamictization, and chemical alteration. The paper presents a selection of both the most typical, but also of the less common, features seen in zircon, categorized according to the different geological processes responsible for their formation. The atlas is intended as a general guide for the interpretation of zircon characteristics, and of related isotopic data. Zircon has become one of the most widely used minerals for the extraction of information on the prehistory and genesis of magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Much of the geological usefulness of zircon stems from its suitability as a geochronometer based on the decay of U (and Th) to Pb, but in addition it is also the major host of the radiogenic isotopic tracer Hf, and it is used to determine oxygen isotopic compositions and REE and other trace element abundances, all of which yield useful clues concerning the history of the host rock, and in some case, the parent rock in which the precursor zircon crystallized. One of the major advantages of zircon is its ability to survive magmatic, metamorphic and erosional processes that destroy most other common minerals. Zircon-forming events tend to be preserved as distinct structural entities on a pre-existing zircon grain. Because of this ability, quite commonly zircon consists of distinct segments, each preserving a particular period of zircon-formation (or consumption). A long experience and modern instrumentation and techniques have provided the “zircon community” the means to image and interpret preserved textures, and hence to decipher the history and evolution of a rock. One …
TL;DR: A review of existing geothermometers and geobarometers, and a presentation of approximately 30 new models, including a new plagioclase-liquid hygrometer, can be found in this paper.
Abstract: Knowledge of temperature and pressure, however qualitative, has been central to our views of geology since at least the early 19th century. In 1822, for example, Charles Daubeny presented what may be the very first “Geological Thermometer,” comparing temperatures of various geologic processes (Torrens 2006). Daubeny (1835) may even have been the first to measure the temperature of a lava flow, by laying a thermometer on the top of a flow at Vesuvius—albeit several months following the eruption, after intervening rain (his estimate was 390°F). In any case, pressure ( P ) and temperature ( T ) estimation lie at the heart of fundamental questions: How hot is Earth, and at what rate has the planet cooled. Are volcanoes the products of thermally driven mantle plumes? Where are magmas stored, and how are they transported to the surface—and how do storage and transport relate to plate tectonics? Well-calibrated thermometers and barometers are essential tools if we are to fully appreciate the driving forces and inner workings of volcanic systems. This chapter presents methods to estimate the P-T conditions of volcanic and other igneous processes. The coverage includes a review of existing geothermometers and geobarometers, and a presentation of approximately 30 new models, including a new plagioclase-liquid hygrometer. Our emphasis is on experimentally calibrated “thermobarometers,” based on analytic expressions using P or T as dependent variables. For numerical reasons (touched on below) such expressions will always provide the most accurate means of P-T estimation, and are also most easily employed. Analytical expressions also allow error to be ascertained; in the absence of estimates of error, P-T estimates are nearly meaningless. This chapter is intended to complement the chapters by Anderson et al. (2008), who cover granitic systems, and by Blundy and Cashman (2008) and Hansteen and Klugel (2008), who consider additional methods …
TL;DR: In this paper, two low-temperature thermochronometers, namely fission-track and (U-Th)/He, are discussed, and a forward and inverse model solution is proposed.
Abstract: The thermochronometric systems discussed in this volume broadly share three features: parent isotopes, daughter products, and one or more time-dependent, temperature-sensitive processes by which daughter products are altered or lost. If these processes can be measured in the laboratory, and their behavior confidently extrapolated to geological time scales, it becomes possible to construct a forward model of the system that predicts how a given instance of it will evolve assuming a particular starting arrangement and subsequent time-temperature history. Once a forward model has been created and verified, it then becomes possible to apply it in the inverse sense: given a measured ending condition and an assumed starting one, find the intervening time-temperature history. In general, because of information loss, limited precision of measurements, and lack of system uniqueness, more than one history is consistent with a given ending condition. As a result, an inverse model solution usually consists of a set of thermal histories that are consistent with the measured data, as judged by some statistical criterion. This chapter will concentrate on two low-temperature thermochronometers: fission-track (primarily for apatite) and (U-Th)/He. All of the calculations described here are implemented in a computer program called “HeFTy,” which is available with this volume (see Ehlers et al. 2005). A theme that will be touched upon throughout this chapter is that forward and inverse models are only as good as the data and assumptions behind them. Although this principle of course holds for all scientific investigations, it is often obscured when such details are packaged in user-friendly software that produces publication-ready graphics. Fission tracks form continuously over time at a rate dependent solely upon the concentration of uranium present. Earlier-formed fission tracks tend to be shorter than later-formed tracks, as they will have had more time to anneal, and may have experienced …