Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
About: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse is an academic journal published by SAGE Publishing. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Poison control & Domestic violence. It has an ISSN identifier of 1524-8380. Over the lifetime, 1050 publications have been published receiving 52998 citations. The journal is also known as: Trauma, violence and abuse & TVA.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This article reviews the literature on sexual revictimization, covering approximately 90 empirical studies and includes a discussion of prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of sexual revictsimization.
Abstract: This article reviews the literature on sexual revictimization, covering approximately 90 empirical studies and includes a discussion of prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of sexual revictimization. Research suggests that two of three individuals who are sexually victimized will be revictimized. The occurrence of childhood sexual abuse and its severity are the best documented and researched predictors of sexual revictimization. Multiple traumas, especially childhood physical abuse, and recency of sexual victimization are also associated with higher risk. There is preliminary evidence that membership in some ethnic groups or coming from a dysfunctional family places an individual at a greater risk. Revictimization is associated with higher distress and certain psychiatric disorders. People who were revictimized show difficulty in interpersonal relationships, coping, self-representations, and affect regulation and exhibit greater self-blame and shame. Existing research on prevention efforts and treatment is discussed. More longitudinal studies on sexual revictimization are needed.
TL;DR: Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development, the psychological impact of adult sexual assault is examined through an ecological theoretical perspective to understand how factors at multiple levels of the social ecology contribute to post-assault sequelae.
Abstract: This review examines the psychological impact of adult sexual assault through an ecological theoretical perspective to understand how factors at multiple levels of the social ecology contribute to post-assault sequelae. Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986, 1995) ecological theory of human development, we examine how individual-level factors (e.g., sociodemographics, biological/genetic factors), assault characteristics (e.g., victim-offender relationship, injury, alcohol use), microsystem factors (e.g., informal support from family and friends), meso/ exosystem factors (e.g., contact with the legal, medical, and mental health systems, and rape crisis centers), macrosystem factors (e.g., societal rape myth acceptance), and chronosystem factors (e.g., sexual revictimization and history of other victimizations) affect adult sexual assault survivors' mental health outcomes (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicidality, and substance use). Self-blame is conceptualized as meta-construct that stems from all levels of this ecological model. Implications for curbing and/or preventing the negative mental health effects of sexual assault are discussed.
TL;DR: Observed sex differences in anxiety, neuroticism, and depression, inducing effects of stressful experiences, might provide a theoretical context for further inquiry into the greater vulnerability of females to PTSD.
Abstract: Epidemiologic studies have reported that the majority of community residents in the United States have experienced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-level traumatic events, as defined in the DSM-IV. Only a small subset of trauma victims develops PTSD (<10%). Increased incidence of other disorders following trauma exposure occurs primarily among trauma victims with PTSD. Female victims of traumatic events are at higher risk for PTSD than male victims are. Direct evidence on the causes of the sex difference in the conditional risk of PTSD is unavailable. The available evidence suggests that the sex difference is not due to (a) the higher occurrence of sexual assault among females, (b) prior traumatic experiences, (c) preexisting depression or anxiety disorder, or (d) sex-related bias in reporting. Observed sex differences in anxiety, neuroticism, and depression, inducing effects of stressful experiences, might provide a theoretical context for further inquiry into the greater vulnerability of females to PTSD.
TL;DR: The issue of resilience in relation to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder is investigated as a multifaceted phenomena characterized as a complex repertoire of behavioral tendencies.
Abstract: Based on the available literature, this review article investigates the issue of resilience in relation to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Resilient coping to extreme stress and trauma is a multifaceted phenomena characterized as a complex repertoire of behavioral tendencies. An integrative Person x Situation model is developed based on the literature that specifies the nature of interactions among five classes of variables: (a) personality, (b) affect regulation, (c) coping, (d) ego defenses, and (e) the utilization and mobilization of protective factors and resources to aid coping.
TL;DR: The factors that shape attitudes toward violence against women are reviewed, offering a framework with which to comprehend the complex array of influences on attitudes toward violent behavior perpetrated by men against women.
Abstract: Attitudes toward men's violence against women shape both the perpetration of violence against women and responses to this violence by the victim and others around her. For these reasons, attitudes are the target of violence-prevention campaigns. To improve understanding of the determinants of violence against women and to aid the development of violence-prevention efforts, this article reviews the factors that shape attitudes toward violence against women. It offers a framework with which to comprehend the complex array of influences on attitudes toward violent behavior perpetrated by men against women. Two clusters of factors, associated with gender and culture, have an influence at multiple levels of the social order on attitudes regarding violence. Further factors operate at individual, organizational, communal, or societal levels in particular, although their influence may overlap across multiple levels. This article concludes with recommendations regarding efforts to improve attitudes toward violence against women.