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Journal ArticleDOI

A History of Ancient Egypt

01 Apr 1994-History: Reviews of New Books (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 22, Iss: 3, pp 136-136
About: This article is published in History: Reviews of New Books.The article was published on 1994-04-01. It has received 76 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Ancient literature.
Citations
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Book
16 Dec 2009
TL;DR: In Water, esteemed journalist Steven Solomon describes a terrifying and all too real-world in which access to fresh water has replaced oil as the primary cause of global conflicts that increasingly emanate from drought-ridden, overpopulated areas of the world as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: "I read this wide-ranging and thoughtful book while sitting on the banks of the Ganges near Varanasi-it's a river already badly polluted, and now threatened by the melting of the loss of the glaciers at its source to global warming. Four hundred million people depend on it, and there's no backup plan. As Steven Solomon makes clear, the same is true the world over; this volume will give you the background to understand the forces that will drive much of 21st century history." -Bill McKibben In Water, esteemed journalist Steven Solomon describes a terrifying-and all too real-world in which access to fresh water has replaced oil as the primary cause of global conflicts that increasingly emanate from drought-ridden, overpopulated areas of the world. Meticulously researched and undeniably prescient, Water is a stunningly clear-eyed action statement on what Robert F Kennedy, Jr. calls "the biggest environmental and political challenge of our time."

150 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss several universal features of fortifications and distinguish those features that are unequivocally military in function, including V-sectioned ditches, "defended" (especially baffled) gates, and bastions.
Abstract: This article discusses several universal features of fortifications and distinguishes those features that are unequivocally military in function. The evidence adduced includes the features of known historic fortifications, relevant prescriptions by ancient military authors, and geometry. The archaeologically visible features that are universally used in military defenses are V-sectioned ditches, “defended” (especially baffled) gates, and bastions. It is also noted that ritual, ceremonial, or any other peaceful activities conducted within an enclosure having these architectural features does not preclude its obvious military function.

134 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the role of climate change in the late Bronze Age collapse of Eastern Mediterranean civilizations and found that it may have hastened the fall of the Old World by sparking famine, invasions, and conflicts, leading to the political, economic, and cultural chaos termed Late Bronze Age.
Abstract: One of the goals of climate scientists is to understand how climate shifts may have changed the course of history and influenced culture at millennial timescales. Repeatedly, environmental degradation has upset the balance between people, their habitat, and the socioeconomic frameworks in which they live. Among these imbalances, drought, firmly rooted in people's minds as a catalyst of harvest failures and famines, remains a permanent threat because it may trigger or amplify social crises, leading to massive exoduses, conflicts, and political turmoil. The spiral of decline in which the flourishing Eastern Mediterranean civilizations were plunged 3200 years ago, and the ensuing chaos, remains a persistent riddle in Near Eastern history. Scholars tend to believe that this socioeconomic collapse was violent and culturally disruptive. Most of the coastal cities between Pylos and Gaza were destroyed, burned, and often left unoccupied, thereafter, putting an end to the elaborate network of international trade that ensured prosperity in the Aegean and the Eastern Mediterranean. The rural settlements that emerged have mainly persisted through adapted agropastoral activities and limited long-distance trade. At the dusk of this event, regional cultures began to be poorly documented, leading historians to allude to a dark age that lasted for 300 years. Among the roots, tectonic instability and earthquakes, demographic imbalance between social groups, internal collapses, and technological innovations are commonly evoked. However, recent studies have mainly hypothesized about an impact of a centuries-long drought behind the decline. Drought may have hastened the fall of the Old World by sparking famine, invasions, and conflicts, leading to the political, economic, and cultural chaos termed Late Bronze Age collapse'. WIREs Clim Change 2015, 6:369-382. doi: 10.1002/wcc.345 For further resources related to this article, please visit the . Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflict of interest for this article.

74 citations

Book
24 Oct 2015

71 citations

References
More filters
Book
16 Dec 2009
TL;DR: In Water, esteemed journalist Steven Solomon describes a terrifying and all too real-world in which access to fresh water has replaced oil as the primary cause of global conflicts that increasingly emanate from drought-ridden, overpopulated areas of the world as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: "I read this wide-ranging and thoughtful book while sitting on the banks of the Ganges near Varanasi-it's a river already badly polluted, and now threatened by the melting of the loss of the glaciers at its source to global warming. Four hundred million people depend on it, and there's no backup plan. As Steven Solomon makes clear, the same is true the world over; this volume will give you the background to understand the forces that will drive much of 21st century history." -Bill McKibben In Water, esteemed journalist Steven Solomon describes a terrifying-and all too real-world in which access to fresh water has replaced oil as the primary cause of global conflicts that increasingly emanate from drought-ridden, overpopulated areas of the world. Meticulously researched and undeniably prescient, Water is a stunningly clear-eyed action statement on what Robert F Kennedy, Jr. calls "the biggest environmental and political challenge of our time."

150 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss several universal features of fortifications and distinguish those features that are unequivocally military in function, including V-sectioned ditches, "defended" (especially baffled) gates, and bastions.
Abstract: This article discusses several universal features of fortifications and distinguishes those features that are unequivocally military in function. The evidence adduced includes the features of known historic fortifications, relevant prescriptions by ancient military authors, and geometry. The archaeologically visible features that are universally used in military defenses are V-sectioned ditches, “defended” (especially baffled) gates, and bastions. It is also noted that ritual, ceremonial, or any other peaceful activities conducted within an enclosure having these architectural features does not preclude its obvious military function.

134 citations

Book
24 Oct 2015

71 citations

Book
26 Feb 2018
TL;DR: The authors investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East's social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions.
Abstract: Mark Altaweel Andrea Squitieri R E V O LU T IO N IZ IN G A W O R L D M rk A taw el nd A nrea Sqitieri This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modernday Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire.

66 citations