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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/03075079.2019.1643308

Roots and STEMS? Examining field of study choices among northern and rural youth in Canada*

04 Mar 2021-Studies in Higher Education (Routledge)-Vol. 46, Iss: 3, pp 563-593
Abstract: Despite several decades of postsecondary expansion, new research finds youth from northern and rural areas in Canada still experience difficulties making the transition to postsecondary edu...

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Topics: Rural area (56%)

7 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JRURSTUD.2019.10.032
Abstract: The elevated demands of the new knowledge economy pose particular challenges to rural and northern regions in Canada, long acknowledged by policymakers to suffer from acute human capital deficits. Rural residents obtain lower levels of education than their urban counterparts and those that do obtain post-secondary training often migrate to urban regions offering abundant employment opportunities and higher wages. Despite an emerging consensus around over skill deficits across rural regions, Canadian researchers have yet to systematically explore contemporary rural-urban differences in human capital using refined measures of literacy and numeracy skills. We ameliorate this deficiency by mapping rural-urban disparities in skills across the working age population (16–65) using Statistics Canada's 2012 Longitudinal International Study of Adults (LISA). Our results indicate that residents from smaller population centers and rural areas within Canada show significantly lower skills proficiencies. These differences across location of residence shrink considerably when controlling for education level, underscoring the need to enhance post-secondary access in rural areas.

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Topics: Rural area (61%), Population (55%), Human capital (53%) ... read more

13 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3776/TPRE.2021.V11N1P40-59
17 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Rural students account for almost 20% of the US K-12 students, but rural context varies from state to state. This study uses a statewide longitudinal sample (N = 3,119) to analyze college enrollment and STEM major choice patterns of Montana’s public high school students in the academic years of 2013-2017. The binary logistic regressions showed that Montanan students are more likely to enroll into a 4-year institution than a 2-year institution. Also, students enrolled at a 4-year institution are more likely to consider STEM majors than students at a 2-year institution. Although high school GPA and ACT STEM scores are strong predictors for both college enrollment and STEM major choice, findings for race/ethnicity, gender, and free or reduced-price lunch status varied across the two outcomes. Specifically, race/ethnicity contributes to variation in college enrollment, but not STEM major choice. Similarly, free or reduced-price lunch status in high school is predictive of college enrollment, but not for STEM major choice. Although there was no difference in college enrollment type for gender, male students are more likely to select a STEM major, and this trend occurs at a rate of three times higher at a 4-year institution versus a 2-year institution. Our findings provide additional nuances of rural students, contributing to the understanding of their college enrollment and STEM major choices in the context of Montana - a large geographic, low populous state - which has received less attention than urban and high-density states.

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6 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.22584/NR49.2020.017
Abstract: Differentiation policies have been implemented in Ontario higher education (HE) with the intent of manufacturing a more efficient and higher-quality system. Policy-makers have repeatedly touted their benefits, but the unintended consequences of differentiation policies remain neglected. Through this piece, we present a northern critique of differentiation policies grounded on the distance deterrence effects literature. We propose that differentiation policies threaten to exacerbate existing provincial north-south disparities in HE access, hampering human capital formation and economic development in northern communities. In addition, we specify some strategies to mitigate these detrimental effects and conclude by providing a conceptual framework through which to understand regional “blind spots” in differentiation policy.

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Topics: Deterrence theory (54%), Unintended consequences (53%), Human capital (51%) ... read more

6 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/CARS.12276
Abstract: Brain drain is an increasingly important concern for local governments in northern communities in Canada in maintaining and enhancing human capital levels to sustain vibrant economies and communities. Researchers, however, have yet to examine the magnitude of north-south out-migration nor do we know the characteristics of youth who are likely to relocate. Our study contributes to this knowledge gap by employing multiple waves from Statistics Canada's Youth in Transition Survey (Cohort A) linked to each youth's reading scores from the Programme for International Student Assessment (measured at age 15), and longitudinally to their tax filer information until age 30 (T1 Family Files).

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Topics: Human capital (53%)

5 Citations


79 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/228311
Mark Granovetter1Institutions (1)
Abstract: How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclasical accounts provide an "undersocialized" or atomized-actor explanation of such action, reformist economists who attempt to bring social structure back in do so in the "oversocialized" way criticized by Dennis Wrong. Under-and oversocialized accounts are paradoxically similar in their neglect of ongoing structures of social relations, and a sophisticated account of economic action must consider its embeddedness in such structures. The argument in illustrated by a critique of Oliver Williamson's "markets and hierarchies" research program.

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Topics: Embeddedness (63%), Social theory (57%), Social relation (55%) ... read more

24,320 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513
Urie Bronfenbrenner1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A broader approach to research in hu- j man development is proposed that focuses on the pro- \ gressive accommodation, throughout the life span, between the growing human organism and the changing environments in which it actually lives and grows. \ The latter include not only the immediate settings containing the developing person but also the larger social contexts, both formal and informal, in which these settings are embedded. In terms of method, the approach emphasizes the use of rigorousj^d^igned exp_erjments, both naturalistic and contrived, beginning in the early stages of the research process. The chang- ing relation between person and environment is con- ceived in systems terms. These systems properties are set forth in a series of propositions, each illus- trated by concrete research examples.

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Topics: Poison control (52%)

6,981 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/321300
Abstract: This article proposes a general explanation for social background‐related inequality. Educational attainment research indicates that the later an education transition, the lower the social background effect. While some suggest life course changes in the parent‐child relationship or between‐family competition explain this pattern, others contend the result is a statistical artifact, and that the analytic strategy presupposes agents are irrationally myopic. This article addresses these criticisms by framing educational transitions in terms of students' movement through the stratified curriculum. Students select their stratum, one of which is dropping out. To make these choices, they consider their most recent salient performance. Using time‐varying performance measures to predict students' track placement/school continuation sustains the validity of the educational transitions approach and suggests substantively important social background effects even for nearly universal transitions. Results are consisten...

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Topics: Educational attainment (51%)

1,131 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1023/B:RYSO.0000004951.04408.B0
01 Dec 2003-Theory and Society
Abstract: In this article, we assess how the concept of cultural capital has been imported into the English language, focusing on educational research. We argue that a dominant interpretation of cultural capital has coalesced with two central premises. First, cultural capital denotes knowledge of or facility with “highbrow” aesthetic culture. Secondly, cultural capital is analytically and causally distinct from other important forms of knowledge or competence (termed “technical skills,” “human capital,” etc.). We then review Bourdieu’s educational writings to demonstrate that neither of these premises is essential to his understanding of cultural capital. In the third section, we discuss a set of English-language studies that draw on the concept of cultural capital, but eschew the dominant interpretation. These serve as the point of departure for an alternative definition. Our definition emphasizes Bourdieu’s reference to the capacity of a social class to “impose” advantageous standards of evaluation on the educational institution. We discuss the empirical requirements that adherence to such a definition entails for researchers, and provide a brief illustration of the intersection of institutionalized evaluative standards and the educational practices of families belonging to different social classes. Using ethnographic data from a study of social class differences in family-school relationships, we show how an African-American middle-class family exhibits cultural capital in a way that an African-American family below the poverty level does not.

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Topics: Cultural capital (70%), Social reproduction (68%), Individual capital (67%) ... read more

1,068 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/595942
Maria Charles1, Karen BradleyInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Data from 44 societies are used to explore sex segregation by field of study. Contrary to accounts linking socioeconomic modernization to a “degendering” of public‐sphere institutions, sex typing of curricular fields is stronger in more economically developed contexts. The authors argue that two cultural forces combine in advanced industrial societies to create a new sort of sex segregation regime. The first is gender‐essentialist ideology, which has proven to be extremely resilient even in the most liberal‐egalitarian of contexts; the second is self‐expressive value systems, which create opportunities and incentives for the expression of “gendered selves.” Multivariate analyses suggest that structural features of postindustrial labor markets and modern educational systems support the cultivation, realization, and display of gender‐specific curricular affinities.

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Topics: Sex segregation (58%), Industrial society (53%)

537 Citations

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