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Journal ArticleDOI

Schools of Tomorrow

28 Jun 2016-Vol. 3, Iss: 1, pp 74-76
TL;DR: The aim of this book is to show what actually happens when schools start out to put into practice each in its own way, the effects of applications arise from new educational ideas and the direction and meaning that education seems to be taking at present time.
Abstract: Education reformist and philosopher John Dewey has stated that the ultimate aim of writing “School’s of Tomorrow” is not an attempt to develop a complete theory of education nor yet review any systems or discuss the views of prominent educators.This is not a text book of education nor yet an exposition of a new method of school teaching, aims to show the weary teacher or the discontented parent how education should be carried on. The aim of this book is to show what actually happens when schools start out to put into practice each in its own way, the effects of applications arise from new educational ideas and the direction and meaning that education seems to be taking at present time. The most important point that should be taken into consideration in the book “School’s of Tomorrow” which was written by John Dewey a century ago in 1915, is that Are the schools at present educational system in 2016 able to provide educational application and practices mentioned in the book? In the book it is asserted that education is the result of natural growth and it gives much importance and consistent with basic educational principles such as personal liberties and individuality. In addition; the role of education in social development and supplying local needs are the two important current topics discussed in educational system makes the book ultimately notable. Anoter important issue emphasized in the book is guiding to constitute democracy tradition in education. The book is useful source for the educators, parents and pupils.

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Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies Copyright 2016
2016, Vol. 3, No. 1, 74-76 ISSN: 2149-1291
!
Professional Book Review
Dewey, J.& Dewey,E.(1915). Schools of Tomorrow. Newyork.E.P.Dutton&Company.
Reviewed by Metin Kus, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Education reformist and philosopher John Dewey has stated that the ultimate
aim of writing “School’s of Tomorrow” is not an attempt to develop a
complete theory of education nor yet review any systems or discuss the views
of prominent educators.This is not a text book of education nor yet an
exposition of a new method of school teaching, aims to show the weary
teacher or the discontented parent how education should be carried on. The
aim of this book is to show what actually happens when schools start out to
put into practice each in its own way, the effects of applications arise from
new educational ideas and the direction and meaning that education seems to
be taking at present time. The most important point that should be taken into consideration in the book
“School’s of Tomorrow” which was written by John Dewey a century ago in 1915 is that, Are the
schools at present educational system in 2016 able to provide educational application and practices
mentioned in the book? In the book it is asserted that education is the result of natural growth and it
gives much importance and consistent with basic educational principles such as personal liberties and
individuality. In addition; the role of education in social development and supplying local needs are the
two important current topics discussed in educational system makes the book ultimately notable.
Anoter important issue emphasized in the book is guiding to constitute democracy tradition in
education. The book is useful source for the educators, parents and pupils.The book “Schools of
Tomorrow”consists of eleventh chapters. These chapters were organized as follows:
1.Education as a Natural Development
2.An Experiment in Education as Natural Development
3.Four Factors in Natural Graowth
4.The Reorganization of the Curriculum
5.Play
6.Freedom And Individuality
7.The Relation of the School to the Community
8.The School as a Social Settlement
9.Industry and Educational Readjustment
10. Education Through Industry
11.Democray and Education
In the first chapter the authorshaveargued that education should be seen as a natural growth.
We know nothing of childhood, and with our mistakennotions of it the further we go in education the
more we go astray. Educational system heavily focused on what one needs to know as an adult
neglecting what children tends to know as a child. As Rousseau has stated education must rely on
natural competences of child. Education is not something doing by force from outside but it is an
inborn natural growth capacity of human being. Small portion of learning occur at school. Children
mostly learn by doing and experiencing through daily life. According to the authorRousseau was
almost the first to see that learning is a matter of necessity, it is a part of the process of self
preservation and of natural growth.If so, it is crucial to understand that learning is a need and it is based
on children’s daily life experiences rather than school practices. But schools are always proceeding in
a direction opposed to this principle.They take accumulated learning of adults, materials that is quite
unrelated to the exigencies of growth,and try to force it upon children, instead of finding out what these
children need as they go along. Nature would have children be children before they are men. If we try
to invert this order we shall produce a forced fruit, immature and flavorless, fruit that rots before it can
ripen. Childhood has its own ways of thinking, seeing and feeling. Physical growth is not identical with
mental growth but the two coincide in time, and normally the latter is impossible without the former.
Our first teachers in natural philosophy are our feet, hands and eyes. To substitute books for them does
not teach us to reason; it teaches us to use the reason of others rather than our own;it teaches us to
believe much and to know little.
In the second chapter the authors have mentioned about his thoughts on natural growth in
education and have shared the results of a project which was conducted at Fairhope schools. They have
articulated that Rousseau’s thoughts education is aprocess of natural growth” affected many
educators.One of this educators Mrs. Johnson conducted an experiment related with her own
educational model at Fairhope schools in Alabama. Her main underlying principle was Rousseau’s

Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 2016, Vol.3, No.1
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75
central idea; namely: The child is best prepared for life as an adult by experiencing in childhoodwhat
has meaning to him as a child;and further the child has right to enjoy his childhood. Mrs. Johnson
criticized the conventional schools today because they were arranged to make things easy for the
teachers and disregard the full development of the pupils. Mrs Johnson was trying an experiment under
conditions which hold in public schools and she called her methods of education “organic”because they
follow the natural growth of the child. The school aimed to provide for the child the occupations and
activities necessary at each stage of development for his unfolding at that stage. She called her classes
as Life classes” instead of grades.The work within the group was then arranged to give the pupils the
experiences which are needed at that age for the development of their bodies, minds, and spirits.Doing
forced tasks, assignment of lessons to study, and ordinary examinations have no share in the Fairhope
curriculum. They used their instincts to learn naturally. At fairhope schools students conducted their
study, teachers were ready for help when they needed, they did not make the students memorize
items.Tests were often conducted with books open and real love of books were stimulated. As a result
of this system students gained enthusiasm to learn naturally and preserved confidence and joy in life.
He likes school and learn unconsciously as a product of his experiences.The following activities
worked out at Fairhope as a substitute for the usual curriculum: physical exercise, nature study, music,
hand work, field geography, story telling, sense culture, fundamental conceptions of number,
dramatizations, and games. The Fairhope pupils compared favorably with pupils in the ordinary public
schools. they have always been able to work with other children of their age without extra effort; they
are apt to be stronger physically and are much more capable with their hands, while they have a real
love of books.
In the third chapter the authorshave expressed the idea that education should follow natural
development of the child and it was essential to give importance on these four factors; game,
observation,story and handwork.Prof. J. L. Meriam, had much in common with Mrs. Johnson's school
at Fairhope. In its fundamental idea, that education shall follow the natural development of the child, it
was identical, but its actual organization and operation were sufficiently different to make a description
of it suggestive. In common with most educational reformers, Professor Meriam believed the schools of
the past was too much concerned with teaching, children adult facts and ignored the needs of the
individual child.He also believed that the work and play of the school should be children's work and
play; that the children should enjoy school. Children learned to read, to write, to speak and to draw
because theyneed them.What would these children naturally be doing if there were no school? On the
answer to this question Professor Meriam they would, he said, be playing outdoors, exercising their
bodies by running, jumping, or throwing; they would be talking together in groups, discussing what
they had seen or heard; they would be making things to use in their play. These activities are related to
life and we send our children to learn these at school. Prof. Meriam divided a school day into four
parts; game, story, observation and handwork.
In the fourth chapter the authors haverevealed thatcurriculum should be arranged according to
the needs of students. The child should spend his time on things that are suited to his age and had an
opportunityto develop naturally,mentally, spiritually and physically.How is the teacher to offer this
opportunity to the students? By reviewing some of the modern attempts at educational reform and
putting emphasis on the curriculum. Frobel and Pestalozzi not only brought new ideas to educational
system but they also affected school practices more than any modern educators. Pestalozzi has asserted
that natural growth means social growth and communicating with other people was more important
than nature.He has suggested methods for primary school system focusing on necessity while Frobel
has suggested methods for pre- school system focusing on temperment.
In the fifth chapter the authors haveimplied that games always play an important role in the
education of children and their natural growth. Educators tries to adapt games from natural setting to
class setting. Frobel has given much importance to the game, drama, song and story because these
activities contributes to social development. He has urged that a child should be grown up with creative
and fruitful activities. According to him it is necessary to include game activities in to the all school
curriculum by initiating game instinct inner world of the child. Frobel has asserted that experience of
child gained by mergingsocial interest and instinctual activities.
In the sixth chapter the authors have addressed individual liberty and individuality issues of
child and gave examples from Montessori schools.To the great majority of teachers and parents the
word school is synonymous with "discipline," with quiet, with rows of children sitting still at desks and
listening to the teacher, speaking only when they are spoken to.Schools were expected to teach students
to obey.Educational reformers believed that the function of education was to help the growing child
into a happy, moral, and efficient human being, a consistent plan of education must allow enough
liberty to promote that growth. A truly scientific education can never develop so long as children are
treated in the lump, merely as a class. It is not wise to approach children as a unit of mass production

Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies Copyright 2016
2016, Vol. 3, No. 1, 74-76 ISSN: 2149-1291
!
76
but it is wise to feature their individuality and liberty. Montessori schools mostly gave importance to
the children’s individuality and liberty. Montessori has believed that repressing children physically
while they are in school and teaching them habits of mental passivity and docility is mistaking the
function of the school and doing the children real harm. Scientific education needs libertyin the class
because liberty is activity. Disciplineis the ability to do things independently, not submission under
restraint. Daily life experiences were designed to teach the child to be independent, to supply his own
needs, and to perform the actions of daily life with skill and grace.
In the seventh chapter the authorshave explained the relationship between school and the
community. They have further explained the importance of schooling on development of society.
Assuming that people has the habit of working collaboratively this habit creates compatible, happy and
wealthy community. Peoplesendchildren to school supposedly to learn in a systematic way the
occupations which constituteliving, but to a very large extent the schoolsoverlook, in the methods and
subject-matter oftheir teaching, the social basis of living. The three things that traditional schools must
change are that subject matter curriculum, methods of teachers handling curriculum and methods of
students handling curriculum. All educational reformers following Rousseau attributed to educationas
the best means of regenerating society.
In the eighth chapter the authors have mentioned that schools are seen as social settlement and
locality notion.The most important way to achieve its goals for the schools in the country is putting
emphasis on local needs and professions. At that time, while working to provide standardization on
subject matter and methods, schools neglected local needs. In order to meet the needs of the local life
school curriculum and practices must be arranged according to student’s life experiences. Affiliation
with local areas not only enriching school practices but also increasing student’s motivation and
provided support from the community. Society hasrealized the effectiveness of schools in local sense.
Schools provide developmental opportunities to its local surroundings.
In the ninth chapter the authors have explained the attributed meaning of the school concept
and have mentioned about reconstruction of schooling according to the needs of industry. School
concept derived from Greek word “leisure” which means free time and it gives information about the
nature of change. It is true at all times that educationmeans relief from the pressure of having tomake a
living.The young must be supported more or less by others while they are being instructed.There must
be an atmosphere of leisure if there is to be a truly liberal or free education.The purpose of the
readjustment of education to existing social conditions is not to substitute the acquiring of Money or of
bread and butter for the acquiring of information as an educational aim. It is to supply men and women
who as they go forth from school should be intelligent in the pursuit of the activities in which they
engage.
In the tenth chapter the authors have mentioned the relationship between education and
industry.Industry needs education in order to provide its qualified man power. Education has seen as a
community service because it plays very important role meeting the human resources of industry.
In the eleventh chapter the authors have asserted that the democracy which "proclaims
equality ofopportunity as its ideal requires an education in which learning and social application,
ideasand practice, work and recognition of the meaning of what is done, are united from the beginning
and for all. Schools such as discussed in this book and they are rapidly coming into being in large
numbers all over the country axe showing how the ideal of equal opportunity for all is to be transmuted
into reality.
This book has suprisingly introduced to the reader the difference between what actually
happens and what actualy needed at school ten decades before now, because at present, educators have
been still discussing the issues mentioned in the book. It has mainly aimed to provide natural growth of
children by applying true education.Providing true education for children at school has been a great
contribution to both cultural an intellectual heritage of mankind. True schools has needed to follow
ideas of educational reformers to maintain that heritage. By this way, they have clearly realized that
how theories of prominent educators affects the school practices and therfore natural growth of
children. This book has completely given a clear vision to the reader about the importance of natural
growth, freedom and individuality of children, reorganization of school curriculum to meet the
necessities of industry and society. Above all the book has emphasized and thought us the role of
schools to contribute democracy culture in the community.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a conceptual framework for caring in schools and caring school leadership is proposed, which analyzes and synthesizes literatures from philosophy and education to propose a framework for care in schools.
Abstract: Purpose: This article (1) analyzes and synthesizes literatures from philosophy and education to propose a conceptual framework for caring in schools and caring school leadership and (2) reports the...

107 citations


Cites background from "Schools of Tomorrow"

  • ...…contends that if the principal is, indeed, a person among persons, the school would necessarily need to be viewed as a community characterized by interdependent relationships that include the principal (Barth, 1990; Dewey & Dewey, 1915; Hobbs et al., 1984; Nash & Griffin, 1987; Sizer, 1973)....

    [...]

Dissertation
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the problem of the Structure of the Thesis in the context of literature review and literature review, and present a review of the literature review with a discussion of the structure of the paper.
Abstract: ................................................................... i DECLARATION............................................................ iii ACKOWLEDGEMENTS................................................... v TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................. vii LIST OF TABLES........................................................... x LIST OF FIGURES........................................................ xii Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Background to the Study.............................................................. 1 1.2 The Statement of the Problem.......................................................4 1.3 Summary....................................................................................28 1.4 The Structure of the Thesis..........................................................28 Chapter Two: Literature Review 2.

50 citations

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TL;DR: The flipped classroom model is an innovative educational trend that has been widely adopted in the social sciences but not engineering education as mentioned in this paper, which shifts the educational strategy from a teacher-to a student-centred approach.
Abstract: The flipped classroom model is an innovative educational trend that has been widely adopted in the social sciences but not engineering education. In this model, an active instructional approach shifts the educational strategy from a teacher- to a student-centred approach. The purpose of this study is to compare the learning outcomes of engineering students attending a flipped-model section of the Dynamics of Structures course with students attending a traditional, lecture-based section of the same course taught by the same instructor. The results confirm previous research showing that test scores in the flipped course sections were slightly higher than traditional sections. Although the improvement in test scores was statistically insignificant, student statements indicated that the flipped model promoted a deeper, broader perspective on learning, facilitated problem-solving strategies and improved critical-thinking abilities, self-confidence and teamwork skills, which are needed for a successful ...

44 citations


Cites background from "Schools of Tomorrow"

  • ...Dewey (1915) speculated that the integration of problems into the classroom triggers students’ curiosity and stimulates learning and critical thinking. Kurfiss (1988) argued that critical thinking is embedded in questioning assumptions and seeking alternative views....

    [...]

  • ...Dewey (1915) speculated that the integration of problems into the classroom triggers students’ curiosity and stimulates learning and critical thinking....

    [...]

  • ...Dewey (1915) speculated that the integration of problems into the classroom triggers students’ curiosity and stimulates learning and critical thinking. Kurfiss (1988) argued that critical thinking is embedded in questioning assumptions and seeking alternative views. Guiding students is an important component of instruction in a flipped classroom, and the design of discussions, reflection and questions is intended to foster the advanced skills needed by engineering students. The respondents’ comments show that they were challenged to look for solutions when they encountered a complex situation. An active-learning environment fosters the critical-thinking and problem-solving skills essential to successful engineering careers (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000). Twigg (1994) contended that most college students are active learners who need learning experiences that engage their senses....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Personalized learning has become the most notable application of big data in primary and secondary schools in the United States as discussed by the authors, and the combination of big-data and adaptive technological platforms is the...
Abstract: Personalized learning has become the most notable application of big data in primary and secondary schools in the United States. The combination of big data and adaptive technological platforms is ...

44 citations


Cites background from "Schools of Tomorrow"

  • ...(Dewey and Dewey, 1915: 160–161) Social interaction is the main driver of meaningful learning, rather than an obstruction, or a complementary aspect....

    [...]

  • ...Rousseau’s assertion that education should appeal to students’ natural capacities for active learning, rather than impose on them abstracted knowledge already formulated by adults, is the starting point for Dewey’s educational theory (Dewey and Dewey, 1915)....

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  • ...Achieving a predetermined model of development requires authority, whereas forming the democratic citizen requires freedom (Dewey and Dewey, 1915)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors apply abductive reasoning to explore how student-centred education is theorised in academic literature and articulated within a sample of New Zealand school principals' visions for their schools.
Abstract: While the terms student-centred and learner-centred are used to describe a range of neo-liberal educational policies and practices around the world, the meaning is not clearly defined. This limits its utility as a concept in policy, research and practice. This article applies abductive reasoning to explore how student-centred education is theorised in academic literature and articulated within a sample of New Zealand school principals’ visions for their schools. The findings suggest that student-centred education can be synthesised into a conceptual framework that includes three overlapping dimensions; humanist, agentic and cognitive. The humanist dimension encompasses getting to know students as unique human beings, the agentic focuses on empowering students and the cognitive dimension considers each student’s learning progress. There was diverse understanding of what it meant to be student-centred by the principals with the humanist and agentic dimensions dominating. It is anticipated that educa...

39 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a conceptual framework for caring in schools and caring school leadership is proposed, which analyzes and synthesizes literatures from philosophy and education to propose a framework for care in schools.
Abstract: Purpose: This article (1) analyzes and synthesizes literatures from philosophy and education to propose a conceptual framework for caring in schools and caring school leadership and (2) reports the...

107 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the problem of the Structure of the Thesis in the context of literature review and literature review, and present a review of the literature review with a discussion of the structure of the paper.
Abstract: ................................................................... i DECLARATION............................................................ iii ACKOWLEDGEMENTS................................................... v TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................. vii LIST OF TABLES........................................................... x LIST OF FIGURES........................................................ xii Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Background to the Study.............................................................. 1 1.2 The Statement of the Problem.......................................................4 1.3 Summary....................................................................................28 1.4 The Structure of the Thesis..........................................................28 Chapter Two: Literature Review 2.

50 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The flipped classroom model is an innovative educational trend that has been widely adopted in the social sciences but not engineering education as mentioned in this paper, which shifts the educational strategy from a teacher-to a student-centred approach.
Abstract: The flipped classroom model is an innovative educational trend that has been widely adopted in the social sciences but not engineering education. In this model, an active instructional approach shifts the educational strategy from a teacher- to a student-centred approach. The purpose of this study is to compare the learning outcomes of engineering students attending a flipped-model section of the Dynamics of Structures course with students attending a traditional, lecture-based section of the same course taught by the same instructor. The results confirm previous research showing that test scores in the flipped course sections were slightly higher than traditional sections. Although the improvement in test scores was statistically insignificant, student statements indicated that the flipped model promoted a deeper, broader perspective on learning, facilitated problem-solving strategies and improved critical-thinking abilities, self-confidence and teamwork skills, which are needed for a successful ...

44 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Personalized learning has become the most notable application of big data in primary and secondary schools in the United States as discussed by the authors, and the combination of big-data and adaptive technological platforms is the...
Abstract: Personalized learning has become the most notable application of big data in primary and secondary schools in the United States. The combination of big data and adaptive technological platforms is ...

44 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors apply abductive reasoning to explore how student-centred education is theorised in academic literature and articulated within a sample of New Zealand school principals' visions for their schools.
Abstract: While the terms student-centred and learner-centred are used to describe a range of neo-liberal educational policies and practices around the world, the meaning is not clearly defined. This limits its utility as a concept in policy, research and practice. This article applies abductive reasoning to explore how student-centred education is theorised in academic literature and articulated within a sample of New Zealand school principals’ visions for their schools. The findings suggest that student-centred education can be synthesised into a conceptual framework that includes three overlapping dimensions; humanist, agentic and cognitive. The humanist dimension encompasses getting to know students as unique human beings, the agentic focuses on empowering students and the cognitive dimension considers each student’s learning progress. There was diverse understanding of what it meant to be student-centred by the principals with the humanist and agentic dimensions dominating. It is anticipated that educa...

39 citations