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Chander Prakash

Bio: Chander Prakash is an academic researcher from Lovely Professional University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Machining & Materials science. The author has an hindex of 27, co-authored 150 publications receiving 2380 citations. Previous affiliations of Chander Prakash include Panjab University, Chandigarh & University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University.

Papers published on a yearly basis

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the application of powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PMEDM) for the machining of β-phase titanium (β-Ti) alloy has been proposed.
Abstract: The present research is the first type of study in which the application of powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PMEDM) for the machining of β-phase titanium (β-Ti) alloy has been proposed....

176 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the various abilities and inabilities of fused filament fabrication (FFF) and generate a roadmap of futuristic tasks for better outcomes, which will act as a first-hand reference to the young researchers and senior scientist.

151 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2016
TL;DR: Among the various metallic implant materials, titanium (Ti) alloy is the best choice for the long-term hard body tissue replacements such as hip and knee joints as discussed by the authors, which has excellent mechanical, superi...
Abstract: Among the various metallic implant materials, titanium (Ti) alloy is the best choice for the long-term hard body tissue replacements such as hip and knee joints. It has excellent mechanical, superi...

148 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the 3D printability of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is examined for a range of biomedical applications, including medical devices and tools.

127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an innovative method for surface modification of β-phase titanium alloy using hydroxyapatite mixed electric discharge machining (HAM-EDM) is presented, which enables one to deposit in-situ a biomimetic nano-porous HA-containing layer while shaping the base titanium, hence modifying the surface properties of the original substrate.
Abstract: The study presented an innovative method for surface modification of β-phase titanium alloy using hydroxyapatite mixed electric discharge machining (HAM-EDM). The process enables one to deposit in-situ a biomimetic nano-porous HA-containing layer while shaping the base titanium, hence modifying the surface properties of the original substrate. A series of the dedicated HAM-EDM on titanium alloys have been conducted. Surface integrity, topography, and elemental composition of the modified surface were investigated by FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, and indentation techniques, while in vitro cell study was performed to evaluate biocompatibility and cell attachment of the treated surface. The morphology characterization results revealed that a natural bone-like nano-porous surface topography has been imparted on the β-phae Ti implant surface using the HAM-EDM. The EDS and XRD examinations showed that the deposited layer comprised of Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, O, Ca and P elements and formed biocompatible phases such as Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaZrO 3 , Nb 8 P 5 , CaO, TiP, Nb 4 O 5 , and TiO 2 , TiH on the β-Ti implant surface, which improved the bioactivity of the alloy and beneficial for the promotion of osseointegration. The results revealed that a 18–20 μm thick recast layer containing biocompatible phases was generated, which has excellent metallurgical bonding with the base surface and offered mechanical interlocking to delamination. The HA deposited surface shows am improved hardness of 1275 HV which is 3-fold higher than the untreated surfaces; predominantly owing to the deposition of hard oxides on the modified surface. The HA-deposited bioceramic layer presented an excellent and higher corrosion resistance as compared to EDMed and un-treated specimens in simulated body fluid. The in-vitro bioactivity results confirmed that the nano-porous HA-containing layer exhibited the superior bioactivity and promotes adhesion, growth, proliferation, and differentiation of human osteoblastic MG-63 cells.

107 citations


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Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations

01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future.
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

4,408 citations

01 Jan 2016

1,664 citations

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: Organ printing can be defined as layer-by-layer additive robotic biofabrication of three-dimensional functional living macrotissues and organ constructs using tissue spheroids as building blocks.
Abstract: Organ printing can be defined as layer-by-layer additive robotic biofabrication of three-dimensional functional living macrotissues and organ constructs using tissue spheroids as building blocks. The microtissues and tissue spheroids are living materials with certain measurable, evolving and potentially controllable composition, material and biological properties. Closely placed tissue spheroids undergo tissue fusion - a process that represents a fundamental biological and biophysical principle of developmental biology-inspired directed tissue self-assembly. It is possible to engineer small segments of an intraorgan branched vascular tree by using solid and lumenized vascular tissue spheroids. Organ printing could dramatically enhance and transform the field of tissue engineering by enabling large-scale industrial robotic biofabrication of living human organ constructs with "built-in" perfusable intraorgan branched vascular tree. Thus, organ printing is a new emerging enabling technology paradigm which represents a developmental biology-inspired alternative to classic biodegradable solid scaffold-based approaches in tissue engineering.

942 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Apr 2016
TL;DR: Marshall has unique expertise in leveraging new digital tools, 3D printing, and other advanced manufacturing technologies and applying them to propulsion systems design and other aerospace materials to meet NASA mission and industry needs.
Abstract: Propulsion system development requires new, more affordable manufacturing techniques and technologies in a constrained budget environment, while future in-space applications will require in-space manufacturing and assembly of parts and systems. Marshall is advancing cuttingedge commercial capabilities in additive and digital manufacturing and applying them to aerospace challenges. The Center is developing the standards by which new manufacturing processes and parts will be tested and qualified. Rapidly evolving digital tools, such as additive manufacturing, are the leading edge of a revolution in the design and manufacture of space systems that enables rapid prototyping and reduces production times. Marshall has unique expertise in leveraging new digital tools, 3D printing, and other advanced manufacturing technologies and applying them to propulsion systems design and other aerospace materials to meet NASA mission and industry needs. Marshall is helping establish the standards and qualifications “from art to part” for the use of these advanced techniques and the parts produced using them in aerospace or elsewhere in the U.S. industrial base.

481 citations