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Christopher A. Jolly

Bio: Christopher A. Jolly is an academic researcher from Texas A&M University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fatty acid & Fatty acid-binding protein. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 15 publications receiving 1069 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Low dose, short term dietary exposure to highly purified EPA or DHA appears to suppress mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting IL-2 secretion, and these events are accompanied by reductions in the production of essential lipid second messengers, DAG and ceramide.
Abstract: Elucidation of the mechanism(s) by which dietary fish oil, enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5(n-3)] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)], suppresses the inflammatory process is essential in maximizing this potentially therapeutic effect. Murine T-lymphocyte function and signal transduction were examined in response to a low fat, short term diet enriched in highly purified EPA or DHA ethyl esters. For 10 d, mice were fed comparable diets containing either 3% safflower oil ethyl esters (SAF), 2% SAF + 1% arachidonic acid triglyceride (AA), 2% SAF + 1% EPA, or 2% SAF + 1% DHA. Concanavalin A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in splenocyte cultures was significantly suppressed by dietary EPA and DHA while AA had no effect relative to the SAF control. The suppressed proliferative response in EPA- and DHA-fed mice was preceded temporally by a significant reduction in IL-2 secretion. Kinetics of mitogen-induced diacyl-sn-glycerol (DAG) and ceramide production did not differ significantly between SAF and AA diet groups. In contrast, DAG production was significantly suppressed in EP- and DHA-fed mice relative to the SAF and AA groups. The reduced DAG mass was paralleled by reduced ceramide mass following EPA and DHA feeding compared to the SAF and AA groups. Thus, low dose, short term dietary exposure to highly purified EPA or DHA appears to suppress mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting IL-2 secretion, and these events are accompanied by reductions in the production of essential lipid second messengers, DAG and ceramide.

243 citations

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TL;DR: Because NO is a mediator of the immune response and is the endothelium-dependent relaxing factor, impaired NO synthesis may help explain immunodeficiency and cardiovascular dysfunction in protein- or arginine-deficient subjects.
Abstract: Effects of dietary protein or arginine deficiency on constitutive and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis were determined in young rats by quantifying urinary nitrate excretion. In Experiment 1, 30-d-old rats (n = 16) were divided randomly into two groups (n = 8/group) and pair-fed on the basis of body weight semipurified isocaloric diets containing 20 or 5% casein. In Experiment 2, 30-d-old rats (n = 24) were divided randomly into three groups (n = 8) and pair-fed on the basis of body weight purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (composed of amino acids) containing 0.0, 0.3 or 1.0% L-arginine. In both experiments, daily collection of urine was initiated 10 d after the start of pair-feeding. On d 17 after the pair-feeding was initiated, LPS (1 mg/kg body wt) was injected intraperitoneally into rats, and urine was collected daily for an additional 7 d. In Experiments 3 and 4, activities of constitutive and inducible NO synthases were measured in macrophages and various tissues from protein- or arginine-deficient rats (n = 6). Body weight was lower in rats fed the 5% casein diet or the 0.0 and 0.3% arginine diets than in those fed 20% casein or 1 % arginine, respectively. Dietary protein or arginine deficiency decreased serum concentrations of arginine and urinary nitrate excretion before and after LPS treatment, indicating impaired constitutive and inducible NO synthesis. Protein malnutrition reduced constitutive and inducible NO synthase activities in brain, heart, jejunum, lung, skeletal muscle and spleen, and inducible NO synthase activity in macrophages. Because NO is a mediator of the immune response and is the endothelium-dependent relaxing factor, impaired NO synthesis may help explain immunodeficiency and cardiovascular dysfunction in protein- or arginine-deficient subjects.

142 citations

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TL;DR: Which FABPs form biochemically defined or true isoforms versus FABP that form additional forms, operationally defined as isoforms, is critically evaluated.

127 citations

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TL;DR: Results demonstrate for the first time that both L-F ABP and I-FABP stimulate liver microsomal phosphatidic acid formation by enhancing synthesis of phosphatidate from fatty acyl-CoA and glycerol 3-phosphate.

101 citations

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TL;DR: Dietary EPA and DHA suppressed antigen-specific delayed hypersensitivity reactions and mitogen-induced proliferation of T cells and blunted the production of intracellular second messengers, including diacylglycerol and ceramide, following mitogen stimulation in vitro.
Abstract: A short-term feeding paradigm in mice, with diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was used to study the modulation of T cell activation via the T cell receptor (TcR) and the downstream pathways of intracellular signaling. Diets enriched in EPA and DHA suppressed antigen-specific delayed hypersensitivity reactions and mitogen-induced proliferation of T cells. Cocultures of accessory cells and T cells from mice given different diets revealed that purified fatty acid ethyl esters acted directly on the T cell, rather than through the accessory cell. The loss of proliferative capacity was accompanied by reductions in interleukin (IL)-2 secretion and IL-2 receptor alpha chain mRNA transcription, suggesting that dietary EPA and DHA act, in part, by interrupting the autocrine IL-2 activation pathway. Dietary EPA and DHA blunted the production of intracellular second messengers, including diacylglycerol and ceramide, following mitogen stimulation in vitro. Dietary effects appear to vary with the agonist employed (i.e., anti-CD3 [TcR], anti-CD28, exogenous IL-2, or phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin).

71 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an optimal nutritional countermeasure against space radiation-induced cytotoxicity is designed for the biological safety of astronauts, where a large body of the literature supports the notion that dietary antioxidants are useful radioprotectors.

2,106 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review deals with the recent progress related to the origin and differentiation of the oligodendrocytes, their relationships to other neural cells, and functional neuroglial interactions under physiological conditions and in demyelinating diseases.
Abstract: Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and astrocytes constitute macroglia. This review deals with the recent progress related to the origin and differentiation of the oligodendrocytes, their relationships to other neural cells, and functional neuroglial interactions under physiological conditions and in demyelinating diseases. One of the problems in studies of the CNS is to find components, i.e., markers, for the identification of the different cells, in intact tissues or cultures. In recent years, specific biochemical, immunological, and molecular markers have been identified. Many components specific to differentiating oligodendrocytes and to myelin are now available to aid their study. Transgenic mice and spontaneous mutants have led to a better understanding of the targets of specific dys- or demyelinating diseases. The best examples are the studies concerning the effects of the mutations affecting the most abundant protein in the central nervous myelin, the p...

1,637 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Sep 2000-Cell
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that FXR/BAR is critical for bile acid and lipid homeostasis by virtue of its role as an intracellular bile Acid sensor.

1,613 citations

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TL;DR: Increasing evidence shows that dietary supplementation of specific amino acids to animals and humans with malnutrition and infectious disease enhances the immune status, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality.
Abstract: A deficiency of dietary protein or amino acids has long been known to impair immune function and increase the susceptibility of animals and humans to infectious disease. However, only in the past 15 years have the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms begun to unfold. Protein malnutrition reduces concentrations of most amino acids in plasma. Findings from recent studies indicate an important role for amino acids in immune responses by regulating: (1) the activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages; (2) cellular redox state, gene expression and lymphocyte proliferation; and (3) the production of antibodies, cytokines and other cytotoxic substances. Increasing evidence shows that dietary supplementation of specific amino acids to animals and humans with malnutrition and infectious disease enhances the immune status, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. Arginine, glutamine and cysteine precursors are the best prototypes. Because of a negative impact of imbalance and antagonism among amino acids on nutrient intake and utilisation, care should be exercised in developing effective strategies of enteral or parenteral provision for maximum health benefits. Such measures should be based on knowledge about the biochemistry and physiology of amino acids, their roles in immune responses, nutritional and pathological states of individuals and expected treatment outcomes. New knowledge about the metabolism of amino acids in leucocytes is critical for the development of effective means to prevent and treat immunodeficient diseases. These nutrients hold great promise in improving health and preventing infectious diseases in animals and humans.

1,191 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of marine n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, and inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes.

1,173 citations