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Gary L. Kreps

Bio: Gary L. Kreps is an academic researcher from George Mason University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Health communication & Health care. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 175 publications receiving 8562 citations. Previous affiliations of Gary L. Kreps include National Institutes of Health & University of Dayton.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, the authors found that 63.0% of the US adult population in 2003 reported ever going online, with 63.7% (95% CI, 61.7%-65.8%) of the online population having looked for health information for themselves or others at least once in the previous 12 months.
Abstract: Background The context in which patients consume health information has changed dramatically with diffusion of the Internet, advances in telemedicine, and changes in media health coverage. The objective of this study was to provide nationally representative estimates for health-related uses of the Internet, level of trust in health information sources, and preferences for cancer information sources. Methods Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey were used. A total of 6369 persons 18 years or older were studied. The main outcome measures were online health activities, levels of trust, and source preference. Results Analyses indicated that 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.7%-64.3%) of the US adult population in 2003 reported ever going online, with 63.7% (95% CI, 61.7%-65.8%) of the online population having looked for health information for themselves or others at least once in the previous 12 months. Despite newly available communication channels, physicians remained the most highly trusted information source to patients, with 62.4% (95% CI, 60.8%-64.0%) of adults expressing a lot of trust in their physicians. When asked where they preferred going for specific health information, 49.5% (95% CI, 48.1%-50.8%) reported wanting to go to their physicians first. When asked where they actually went, 48.6% (95% CI, 46.1%-51.0%) reported going online first, with only 10.9% (95% CI, 9.5%-12.3%) going to their physicians first. Conclusion The Health Information National Trends Survey data portray a tectonic shift in the ways in which patients consume health and medical information, with more patients looking for information online before talking with their physicians.

1,388 citations

Book
05 Nov 1999
TL;DR: This chapter introduces the Research Culture, and discusses the importance of Knowing Research Methods, and the process of Analyzing and Reporting Qualitative Data in Communication Research.
Abstract: All chapters end with "Conclusion." Preface. I.CONCEPTUALIZING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH. 1.Introduction to the Research Culture. The Importance of Knowing Research Methods. Making Claims and Offering Evidence. Everyday Ways of Knowing. The Research Process. The Importance of Distinguishing Research from Pseudoresearch. 2.Asking Questions about Communication. Defining Communication. What Constitutes Communication Research? Areas of Communication Research. Basic versus Applied Communication Research Topics. Justifying Communication Research Topics. Research Questions and Hypotheses. 3.Finding, Reading, and Using Research. Reasons for Reviewing Previous Research. The Search for Research. Diane F. Witmer, Internet and World Wide Web Resources for Research. How Research Is Presented: Reading Scholarly Journal Articles. Writing a Literature Review. II.PLANNING AND DESIGNING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH. 4.Observing and Measuring Communication Variables. Conceptual versus Operational Definitions. Measurement Theory. Measurement Methods. Measurement Techniques. 5.Designing Valid Communication Research. Internal and External Validity. Measurement Validity and Reliability. Threats to Internal Validity. External Validity. 6.Research Ethics and Politics. Ethical Issues in Communication Research. III.METHODOLOGIES FOR CONDUCTING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH. 7.Experimental Research. Establishing Causation. Exercising Control in Experimental Research. Experimental Research Designs. Factorial Designs. Laboratory versus Field Experiments. 8.Survey Research. The Prevalence of Surveys. Survey Research Design. Survey Measurement Techniques. Using Multiple Methods in Survey Research. 9.Textual Analysis. Purposes of Textual Analysis. Important Considerations in Textual Analysis. Rhetorical Criticism. Content Analysis. Interaction Analysis. Performance Analysis. Ron Pelias, Performance as a Method. 10.Naturalistic Inquiry. Common Assumptions Guiding Naturalistic Inquiry. Types of Naturalistic Inquiry. The Flow of Naturalistic Inquiry. Collecting Data in Naturalistic Inquiry. Start Making Sense: Analyzing and Reporting Qualitative Data. IV.ANALYZING AND INTERPRETING QUANTITATIVE DATA. 11.Describing Quantitative Data. Making Sense of Numbers: Statistical Data Analysis. Describing Data through Summary Statistics. Describing Data in Standard Scores. Describing Data through Visual Displays. 12.Inferring from Data: Estimation and Significance Testing. Estimation. Significance Testing. 13.Analyzing Differences between Groups. Types of Difference Analysis. Advanced Difference Analysis. 14.Analyzing Relationships between Variables. Types of Relationships. Correlations. Regression Analysis. Advanced Relationship Analysis. V.RECONCEPTUALIZING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH. 15.Epilogue: Concluding Research. Discussing Research Findings. Appendices. Random Number Table. Chi-Square Table. t Table. F Table. Pearson r Table. Spearman rho Table. Glossary. References. Index.

1,037 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The HINTS survey instrument was built upon extant models of health communication and behavior change, taking into account the rapidly changing communication environment, and questions in the survey were drawn from an overall theoretical framework that juxtaposed the “push” aspects of traditional broadcast media against the“pull” elements of new media.
Abstract: Little is known about access, sources, and trust of cancer-related information, or factors that facilitate or hinder communication on a populationwide basis. Through a careful developmental process involving extensive input from many individuals and organizations, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to help fill this gap. This nationally representative telephone survey of 6,369 persons aged � 18 years among the general population was first conducted in 2002‐2003, and will be repeated biennially depending on availability of funding. The purpose of creating a population survey to be repeated on a cyclical basis is to track trends in the public’s rapidly changing use of new

578 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Key communication issues involved in the design of effective and humane eHealth applications are reviewed to help guide strategic development and implementation of health information technologies.

458 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current evidence concerning e- health communication is examined and opportunities for e-health applications are evaluated, with growing initial evidence that e- Health Communication can improve behavioral outcomes.
Abstract: There is substantial epidemiological evidence that widespread adoption of specific behavior changes can significantly improve population health. Yet, health communication efforts, while well intentioned, have often failed to engage people to change behavior within the complex contexts of their lives. `E-health communication', health promotion efforts that are mediated by computers and other digital technologies, may have great potential to promote desired behavior changes through unique features such as mass customization, interactivity and convenience. There is growing initial evidence that e-health communication can improve behavioral outcomes. However, we have much to learn about whether the technical promise of e-health communication will be effective within the social reality of how diverse people communicate and change in the modern world. This article examines current evidence concerning e-health communication and evaluates opportunities for e-health applications.

335 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system by concerned with the spread of messages that are perceived as new ideal.
Abstract: Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. Diffusion is a special type of communication concerned with the spread of messages that are perceived as new ideal. Communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding. Diffusion has a special character because of the newness of the idea in the message content. Thus some degree of uncertainty and perceived risk is involved in the diffusion process. An individual can reduce this degree of uncertainty by obtaining information. Information is a difference in matter energy that affects uncertainty in a situation where a choice exists among a set of alternatives.

9,295 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Models are proposed that show how organizations can be designed to meet the information needs of technology, interdepartmental relations, and the environment to both reduce uncertainty and resolve equivocality.
Abstract: This paper answers the question, "Why do organizations process information?" Uncertainty and equivocality are defined as two forces that influence information processing in organizations. Organization structure and internal systems determine both the amount and richness of information provided to managers. Models are proposed that show how organizations can be designed to meet the information needs of technology, interdepartmental relations, and the environment. One implication for managers is that a major problem is lack of clarity, not lack of data. The models indicate how organizations can be designed to provide information mechanisms to both reduce uncertainty and resolve equivocality.

8,674 citations

01 Aug 2000
TL;DR: Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization with Bioentrepreneur course, which addresses many issues unique to biomedical products.
Abstract: BIOE 402. Medical Technology Assessment. 2 or 3 hours. Bioentrepreneur course. Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization. Objectives, competition, market share, funding, pricing, manufacturing, growth, and intellectual property; many issues unique to biomedical products. Course Information: 2 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): Junior standing or above and consent of the instructor.

4,833 citations

Book ChapterDOI
30 May 2018
TL;DR: Tata Africa Services (Nigeria) Limited as mentioned in this paper is a nodal point for Tata businesses in West Africa and operates as the hub of TATA operations in Nigeria and the rest of West Africa.
Abstract: Established in 2006, TATA Africa Services (Nigeria) Limited operates as the nodal point for Tata businesses in West Africa. TATA Africa Services (Nigeria) Limited has a strong presence in Nigeria with investments exceeding USD 10 million. The company was established in Lagos, Nigeria as a subsidiary of TATA Africa Holdings (SA) (Pty) Limited, South Africa and serves as the hub of Tata’s operations in Nigeria and the rest of West Africa.

3,658 citations