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H. R. Blackley

Bio: H. R. Blackley is an academic researcher from Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto. The author has contributed to research in topics: Bone grafting & Giant-cell tumor of bone. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 291 citations.

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TL;DR: The results of the present study suggest that the risk of local recurrence after curettage with a high-speed burr and reconstruction with autogenous graft with or without allograft bone is similar to that observed after use of cement and other adjuvant treatment.
Abstract: Background: The use of curettage, phenol, and cement is accepted by most experts as the best treatment for giant-cell tumor of bone. The present study was performed to evaluate whether equivalent results could be obtained with curettage with use of a high-speed burr and reconstruction of the resulting defect with autogenous bone graft with or without allograft bone. Methods: The prospectively collected records of patients who had a giant-cell tumor of a long bone were reviewed to determine the rate of local recurrence after treatment with curettage with use of a high-speed burr and reconstruction with autogenous bone graft with or without allograft bone. All of the patients were followed clinically and radiographically, and a biopsy was performed if there were any suspicious changes. Results: Fifty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. According to the grading system of Campanacci et al., two patients (3 percent) had a grade-I tumor, twenty-nine (49 percent) had a grade-II tumor, and twenty-eight (47 percent) had a grade-III tumor. Seventeen patients (29 percent) had a pathological fracture at the time of presentation. The mean duration of follow-up was eighty months (range, twenty-eight to 132 months). Seven patients (12 percent) had a local recurrence. Six of these seven were disease-free at the latest follow-up examination after at least one additional treatment with curettage or soft-tissue resection (one patient). One patient had resection and reconstruction with a prosthesis after a massive local recurrence and pulmonary metastases. Conclusions: Despite the high rates of recurrence reported in the literature after treatment of giant-cell tumor with curettage and bone-grafting, the results of the present study suggest that the risk of local recurrence after curettage with a high-speed burr and reconstruction with autogenous graft with or without allograft bone is similar to that observed after use of cement and other adjuvant treatment. It is likely that the adequacy of the removal of the tumor rather than the use of adjuvant modalities is what determines the risk of recurrence.

307 citations


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01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Lymphedema is a common complication after treatment for breast cancer and factors associated with increased risk of lymphedEMA include extent of axillary surgery, axillary radiation, infection, and patient obesity.

1,988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The radiologic features of giant cell tumor (GCT) and giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) of bone often strongly suggest the diagnosis and reflect their pathologic appearance, and recognition of the spectrum of radiologic appearances of GCT and GCRG is important in allowing prospective diagnosis, guiding therapy, and facilitating early detection of recurrence.
Abstract: The radiologic features of giant cell tumor (GCT) and giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) of bone often strongly suggest the diagnosis and reflect their pathologic appearance. At radiography, GCT often demonstrates a metaepiphyseal location with extension to subchondral bone. GCRG has a similar appearance but most commonly affects the mandible, maxilla, hands, or feet. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are helpful in staging lesions, particularly in delineating soft-tissue extension. Cystic (secondary aneurysmal bone cyst) components are reported in 14% of GCTs. However, biopsy must be directed at the solid regions, which harbor diagnostic tissue. These solid components demonstrate low to intermediate signal intensity at T2-weighted MR imaging, a feature that can be helpful in diagnosis. Multiple GCTs, although rare, do occur and may be associated with Paget disease. Malignant GCT accounts for 5%–10% of all GCTs and is usually secondary to previous irradiation of benign GCT. Treat...

433 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The combination of all adjuncts (PMMA, burring, H2O2 − n = 42) reduces the likelihood of recurrence by the factor 28.2 compared to curettage only and therefore should be recommended as a standard treatment andTherefore, if the tumor reaches close to the articulating surface a subchondral bone graft can be performed without risking a higher recurrence rate.
Abstract: Background Two hundred and fourteen patients with benign giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), treated from 1980 to 2007 at the Department of Orthopedics of the University of Muenster (Germany), were analyzed in a retrospective study.

352 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Giant cell tumour (GCT) is still one of the most obscure and intensively examined tumours of bone; and there are still many unanswered questions with regard to both its treatment and prognosis.
Abstract: Giant cell tumour (GCT) is still one of the most obscure and intensively examined tumours of bone. Its histogenesis is uncertain. The histology does not predict the clinical outcome; and there are still many unanswered questions with regard to both its treatment and prognosis. The World Health Organisation has classified GCT as “an aggressive, potentially malignant lesion”, 1 which means that its evolution based on its histological features is unpredictable. Statistically, 80% of GCTs have a benign course, with a local rate of recurrence of 20% to 50%. About 10% undergo malignant transformation at recurrence and 1% to 4% give pulmonary metastases even in cases of benign histology.

340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results from the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society rating from 1987 were significantly lower in patients who sustained a displaced fracture and results from the bodily pain section of the Short Form-36 also were found to be lower when a pathologic fracture was present.
Abstract: A multicentric retrospective study of giant cell tumor of bone was conducted among Canadian surgeons. The hypothesis was that no differences would be found in health status, function, or recurrence rate irrespective to the nature of filling material or adjuvant used in patients treated with curettage. One hundred eighty-six cases were collected. There were 96 females and 90 males. The mean age of the patients was 36 years (range, 14-72 years), the minimum followup was 24 months, and the median followup was 60 months. Sixty-two percent of the tumors involved the knee region. One hundred fifty-eight were primary tumors and 28 were recurrences. Campanacci grading was as follows: Grade 1, seven patients; Grade 2, 100 patients; Grade 3, 76 patients; and unknown in three patients. Fifty-six patients had a pathologic fracture. Resection was done in 38 patients and 148 patients had curettage. The latter was supplemented with high speed burring in 135 patients, cement in 64 patients, various combinations of autograft or allograft bone in 61 patients, phenol in 37 patients, and liquid nitrogen in 10 patients. Structural allografts were used in 25 patients. The overall recurrence rate was 17%, 18% after curettage, and 16% after resection. Patients with primary tumors treated with curettage had a 10% recurrence rate. For recurrent lesions treated by curettage, the recurrence rate was 35%. The nature of the filling material used or the type of adjuvant method used or any combination of both failed to show any statistical impact on the recurrence risk. The results from the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society rating from 1987 were significantly lower in patients who sustained a displaced fracture. Results from the bodily pain section of the Short Form-36 also were found to be lower when a pathologic fracture was present. Results from the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Rating 1987, the Short Form-36, and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score did not show differences when either cement or bone graft were used after curettage.

338 citations