Author

# James S. T'ien

Other affiliations: Glenn Research Center

Bio: James S. T'ien is an academic researcher from Case Western Reserve University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Diffusion flame & Flame spread. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 120 publications receiving 1967 citations. Previous affiliations of James S. T'ien include Glenn Research Center.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, the steady-state flame spread over a thermally thin solid fuel is investigated, and qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental results in the near-extinction limit region.

Abstract: A theory for the steady-state flame spread over a thermally thin solid fuel is developed in this study. The model considers a laminar diffusion flame in a uniform opposed flow and includes the two-dimensional, elliptic, gas-phase energy, and species equations with one-step overall chemical reaction and second-order, finite-rate Arrhenius kinetics. The unsteady, solid-fuel equations neglect heat conduction ahead of the flame but include transient heating and Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics and are coupled to the quasisteady gas phase. The equations are solved in the laboratory coordinate system. In this study the two-dimensional distributions of temperature and species are obtained, including the low reactivity zone in the flame region. The solid-fuel surface profiles indicate a region of almost uniform temperature (vaporization temperature) during pyrolysis for some parameter values; however, the value is not universally constant for the fuel and does depend on the ambient parameters (pressure, oxygen mass fraction, and magnitude of opposed velocity). The dependence of the flame-spread rate on the ambient parameters is investigated, and qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental results in the near-extinction-limit region. Quantitative agreement with experimental data depends on the choice of parameter values, especially the gas-phase kinetics model parameters, which are generally unknown. The flame-extinction limits due to increased opposed velocity, reduced pressure, and reduced ambient oxygen mass fraction are all obtained in the results calculated from this theory.

183 citations

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01 Jan 1989TL;DR: In this article, the flame behavior is observed to depend strongly on the magnitude of the relative velocity between the flame and the atmosphere, and a low velocity quenching limit is found in low oxgen environments.

Abstract: Diffusion flame spread over a thin solid fuel in quiescent and slowly moving atmospheres is studied in microgravity. The flame behavior is observed to depend strongly on the magnitude of the relative velocity between the flame and the atmosphere. In particular, a low velocity quenching limit is found to exist in low oxgen environments. Using both the microgravity results and previously published data at high opposed-flow velocities, the flame spread behavior is examined over a wide velocity range. A flammability map using molar oxygen percentages and characteristic relative velocities as coordinates is constructed. Trends of flame spread rate are determined and mechanisms for flame extinction are discussed.

122 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a low-stretch diffusion flame is generated using a cylindrical PMMA sample of varying large radii, and a surface energy balance reveals that the fraction of heat transfer from the flame that is lost to in-depth conduction and surface radiation increases with decreasing stretch until quenching extinction is observed.

Abstract: A unique new way to study low gravity flames in normal gravity has been developed. To study flame structure and extinction characteristics in low stretch environments, a normal gravity low-stretch diffusion flame is generated using a cylindrical PMMA sample of varying large radii. Burning rates, visible flame thickness, visible flame standoff distance, temperature profiles in the solid and gas, and radiative loss from the system were measured. A transition from the blowoff side of the flammability map to the quenching side of the flammability map is observed at approximately 6-7/ sec, as determined by curvefits to the non-monotonic trends in peak temperatures, solid and gas-phase temperature gradients, and non-dimensional standoff distances. A surface energy balance reveals that the fraction of heat transfer from the flame that is lost to in-depth conduction and surface radiation increases with decreasing stretch until quenching extinction is observed. This is primarily due to decreased heat transfer from the flame, while the magnitude of the losses remains the same. A unique local extinction flamelet phenomena and associated pre-extinction oscillations are observed at very low stretch. An ultimate quenching extinction limit is found at low stretch with sufficiently high induced heat losses.

74 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of gas-phase radiative effects on the burning and extinction of a solid fuel in a stagnation-point flow geometry were investigated using a statistical narrowband model with carbon dioxide and water vapor as the radiative participating media.

Abstract: Gas-phase radiative effects on the burning and extinction of a solid fuel in a stagnation-point flow geometry are investigated using a statistical narrow-band model with carbon dioxide and water vapor as the radiative participating media. The model, coupled to other flame conservation equations with a one-step overall gas-phase chemical reaction and Arrhenius solid pyrolysis relation, is solved numerically. Flame temperature, solid burning rate, and heat fluxes are examined as functions of stretch rate. Using ambient oxygen percentage and stretch rate as coordinates, A U-shaped extinction boundary is identified. The extinction behavior at low stretch rates is qualitatively similar to that predicted by earlier theory with only surface radiation loss. However, gas radiation introduces additional heat loss from the system and shrinks the solid flammable domain. In addition, gas radiation can cause a substantial decrease of flame temperature and constitutes a significant portion of the heat feedback to the solid at low stretch rates. In the second part of the paper, a computationally less intensive gray gas radiation model is tested. As with a number of earlier investigations, the use of Planck mean absorption coefficient is found to overpredict net emission and flame radiative loss. By multiplying a correction factor (less than 1) in front of the Planck mean absorption coefficient, it is possible to compute many global flame properties with reasonable accuracy. An empirically determined formula is given to find the value of this correction factor for a given flame. This is offered as an engineering approach for the flame radiation treatment.

68 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an analysis has been performed for oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag, where the gaseous flame is assumed to be premixed and laminar with a one-step overall chemical reaction.

Abstract: An analysis has been performed for oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag. The gaseous flame is assumed to be premixed and laminar with a one-step overall chemical reaction. The propellant is assumed to decompose according to the Arrenhius Law, with no condensed phase reaction. With this model, strong gas phase resonance has been found in certain cases at the characteristic gas-phase frequencies, but the peaking of the acoustic admittance is in the direction favoring the damping of pressure waves. At still higher frequencies, moderate wave-amplifying ability was found. The limit of low frequency response obtained previously by Denison and Baum was recovered, and the limitations of the quasi-steady theory were investigated.

67 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a method to detect the presence of a tumor in the human brain using EPFL-206025 data set, which was created on 2015-03-03, modified on 2017-05-12

Abstract: Note: Times Cited: 875 Reference EPFL-ARTICLE-206025doi:10.1021/cr0501846View record in Web of Science URL: ://WOS:000249839900009 Record created on 2015-03-03, modified on 2017-05-12

1,704 citations

10 Jun 2005

TL;DR: This work focuses on the design of a new approximation algorithm that reduces the cost of functional evaluations and yet increases the attainable order higher, and the classical ERK methods.

Abstract: During the last decade, a big progress has been achieved in the analysis and numerical treatment of Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs) and Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). In spite of the rich variety of results available in the literature, there are still many specific problems that require special attention. Two of such, which are considered in this work, are the optimization of order of accuracy and reduction of cost of functional evaluations of Explicit Runge - Kutta (ERK) methods.
Traditionally, the maximum attainable order p of an s-stage ERK method for advancing the solution of an IVP is such that
p(s)
4
In 1999, Goeken presented an s-stage ERK Method of order p(s)=s +1,s>2.
However, this work focuses on the design of a new approximation algorithm that reduces the cost of functional evaluations and yet increases the attainable order higher
U n and Jonhson [94]; and the classical ERK methods. The order p of
the new scheme called Multiderivative Explicit Runge-Kutta (MERK) Methods is such that p(s) 2. The stability, convergence and implementation for the optimization of IVPs in DAEs and ODEs systems are also considered.

665 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation, and obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.

Abstract: Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, we construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. We consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation depend primarily on the flame Strouhal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited mode is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.

530 citations

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01 Jan 1989TL;DR: In this article, the authors use numerical methods, including are-length continuation, to simulate the complex chemical kinetic behavior in premixed methane-air flames that are stabilized between two opposed-flow burners.

Abstract: The application of laminar flamelet concepts to turbulent flame propagation requires a detailed understanding of strained laminar flames. Here we use numerical methods, including are-length continuation, to simulate the complex chemical kinetic behavior in premixed methane-air flames that are stabilized between two opposed-flow burners. We predict both the detailed structure and the extinction limits for these flames over a range of fuel-air mixtures. In addition to discussing the flame structure, a sensitivity analysis provides further insight on the chemical behavior near extinction. Finally, we discuss the comparison of the predictions with Law's experimental extinction data. An especially important aspect of this comparison is the recognition that fluid mechanical aspects of the traditional strained-flame analysis are deficient in representing experiments such as Law's. We develop and solve a new system of equations that is able to describe the experiments much more accurately.

511 citations

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TL;DR: Structured catalysts are promising as far as elimination of these setbacks is concerned as discussed by the authors, however, conventional fixed-bed reactors have some obvious disadvantages such as maldistributions of various kinds (including a nonuniform access of reactants to the catalytic surface), high pressure drop in the bed, etc.

Abstract: The use of structured catalysts in the chemical industry has been considered for years. Conventional fixed-bed reactors have some obvious disadvantages such as maldistributions of various kinds (including a nonuniform access of reactants to the catalytic surface), high pressure drop in the bed, etc. Structured catalysts are promising as far as elimination of these setbacks is concerned. Two basic kinds of structured catalysts can be distinguished: Structural packings covered with catalytically active material, similar in design to those used in distillation and absorption columns and/or static mixers. Good examples of catalysts of this kind are those offered by Sulzer, clearly developed by Sulzer column packings and static mixers. As in packed beds, there is an intensive radial convective mass transport over the entire cross-section of these packings. Structural packing catalysts and the reactors containing them are, however, not within the scope of this review. Monolithic catalysts are continuou...

448 citations