Kurt A. Rosentrater
Other affiliations: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service ...read more
Bio: Kurt A. Rosentrater is an academic researcher from Iowa State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Distillers grains & Fish meal. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 360 publications receiving 4689 citations. Previous affiliations of Kurt A. Rosentrater include American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers & United States Department of Agriculture.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss biofuel and bioenergy production from seaweed, and investigate opportunities, problems, advantages, disadvantages and other issues of this emerging industry, ranging from cultivation to final product.
Abstract: This review discusses biofuel and bioenergy production from seaweed, and ranges from cultivation to final product, and investigates opportunities, problems, advantages, disadvantages and other issues of this emerging industry. High levels of structural polysaccharides and low lignin contents make seaweed attractive feedstocks for production of liquid biofuels via fermentation and biogas production via anaerobic digestion. Since macroalgae can be grown in water (oceans and lakes), they will not compete with land-based crops, and thus will not be in competition with human foods. And biofuel and bioenergy production from macroalgae has some environmental benefits. Electricity produced from biogas derived from macroalgae can be cost-competitive to solar thermal, solar photovoltaic and biomass generated electricity. Biofuel and bioenergy production from macroalgae, however, will entail higher costs than terrestrial biomass feedstocks due to higher costs of cultivation and higher costs to remove harmful content such as sulfur and nitrogen from the resulting fuel or heavy metals from the residues. Economic production of biofuels and bioenergy will be available by increasing the scale and efficiency of production of this emerging resource.
TL;DR: In this article, the primary factors affecting flowability, handling, and storage of granular solids and powders, as well as appropriate testing methodologies for these materials, are reviewed.
Abstract: Much research regarding handling and storage characteristics of bulk solids has been conducted over the years. Physical properties of granular solids play a significant role in their resulting storage and flow behaviour, and are therefore essential to design appropriate, efficient, and economic bulk solids handling and storage equipment and structures. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is a bulk material that has been widely used as a protein source for ruminants and non-ruminants for more than two decades. Distillers grains are energy and nutrient dense, and are often used as a replacement for corn in animal diets. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the last few years, large quantities of distiller’s grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds in domestic and international markets, however, these co-product streams are increasingly being transported greater distances, and must be stored until final use. DDGS flow is problematic as it often becomes restricted by caking and bridging which occurs during transportation and storage. This issue probably results from a number of factors, including storage moisture, temperature, relative humidity, particle size, time, or temperature variations, to name a few. The objective of this study was to review the primary factors affecting flowability, handling, and storage of granular solids and powders, as well as appropriate testing methodologies for these materials. Considering these will be helpful when examining granular flowability and storage challenges for byproduct feeds, including those surrounding the use of DDGS. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IAgrE.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of the existing literature base and compile a physical and nutritional knowledge bank for these residual streams and identify several gaps that currently exist, and discuss future prospects for these materials.
Abstract: The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing, and consequently so is the quantity of coproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These coproduct streams are currently utilized as livestock feed, which provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and significantly increases the profitability of the production process. With the construction and operation of many new plants in recent years these residuals do, however, have much potential for value-added processing and utilization in other sectors as well. This option holds promise of economic benefit for corn processors, especially if the livestock feed market eventually becomes saturated with byproduct feeds. Physical and nutritional properties are crucial for the proper design of processing operations and byproduct applications. Because information concerning ethanol coproduct materials is somewhat disparate outside the livestock arena, the objective of this paper is to fully review the existing literature base and compile a physical and nutritional properties knowledge bank for these residual streams. This paper will also identify several gaps that currently exist, and will discuss future prospects for these materials.
TL;DR: In this article, the physical properties of typical DDGS streams were determined, including moisture content, water activity, thermal properties (conductivity, resistivity, and diffusivity), bulk density, angle of repose, and color.
Abstract: With the rapid growth in the fuel ethanol industry in recent years, considerable research is being devoted to determining distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) nutritional properties and to optimizing their inclusion in livestock diets; physical properties of these materials, however, have been largely ignored. Using standard laboratory methods, several physical properties for typical DDGS streams were determined, including moisture content, water activity, thermal properties (conductivity, resistivity, and diffusivity), bulk density, angle of repose, and color. The DDGS samples in this study were golden-brown in color and exhibited physical properties similar to other dry feed ingredients, such as hominy feed, corn gluten feed, and other corn-based materials. As a first step, the numerical data generated during this study will help fill a current void in design information for the ethanol and livestock industries.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of feed ingredients and process variables when developing aquafeeds from novel materials were evaluated using a single screw extruder with varying screw speeds and extruder barrel temperatures.
Abstract: Isocaloric (3.05 kcal gG ) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of 1 DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of tapioca starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical properties, which included moisture content, unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, sinking velocity, water absorption, water solubility, color (L*, a* and b*) and pellet durability indices. Several extruder parameters, including moisture content at the die, apparent viscosity, specific mechanical energy, mass flow rate, net torque and die pressure were measured to quantify the extruder behavior during processing. All process settings used produced viable extrudates, but some were of better quality than others. For example, increasing the DDGS levels from 20-30% db, protein content from 30-35% db, feed moisture content from 25-45% db and processing temperature from 100-150°C significantly decreased the PDI values by 7.50, 16.2, 17.2 and 16.6%, respectively. Increasing the feed moisture content from 25-45% db resulted in a substantial increase in SME values by 256.2%. On the other hand, increasing the screw speed from 100-200 rpm significantly decreased the SME values by 33.7%. This study highlights the importance of experimentally determining the effects of feed ingredients and process variables when developing aquafeeds from novel materials.
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
31 Oct 2001
TL;DR: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as mentioned in this paper is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards for testing and materials, and is a member of IEEE 802.11.
Abstract: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards.
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: The work of the IPCC Working Group III 5th Assessment report as mentioned in this paper is a comprehensive, objective and policy neutral assessment of the current scientific knowledge on mitigating climate change, which has been extensively reviewed by experts and governments to ensure quality and comprehensiveness.
Abstract: The talk with present the key results of the IPCC Working Group III 5th assessment report. Concluding four years of intense scientific collaboration by hundreds of authors from around the world, the report responds to the request of the world's governments for a comprehensive, objective and policy neutral assessment of the current scientific knowledge on mitigating climate change. The report has been extensively reviewed by experts and governments to ensure quality and comprehensiveness.
01 Aug 2001
TL;DR: The study of distributed systems which bring to life the vision of ubiquitous computing systems, also known as ambient intelligence, is concentrated on in this work.
Abstract: With digital equipment becoming increasingly networked, either on wired or wireless networks, for personal and professional use alike, distributed software systems have become a crucial element in information and communications technologies. The study of these systems forms the core of the ARLES' work, which is specifically concerned with defining new system software architectures, based on the use of emerging networking technologies. In this context, we concentrate on the study of distributed systems which bring to life the vision of ubiquitous computing systems, also known as ambient intelligence.