Lindsey D Bierbaum
Bio: Lindsey D Bierbaum is an academic researcher from Bayer Corporation. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Albuminuria & Creatinine. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 22 citation(s).
Topics: Albuminuria, Creatinine, Dipstick, Ascorbic acid
01 Feb 2000-Clinical Biochemistry
TL;DR: With the simultaneous measurement of creatinine and albumin in urine, the albumin/creatinine ratio can be determined effectively reducing or eliminating the occasional false-negative and false-positive result in those with dilute or concentrated urines, respectively.
Abstract: Objectives: It was our goal to develop a urine dipstick that could measure creatinine with a peroxidase reaction. The simultaneous measurement of albumin and creatinine permits the estimation of the 24-h albumin excretion, an important value in judging existing or likely development of renal failure. A highly sensitive dye-binding dipstick method for albumin exists, and a suitable dipstick for the assay for urine creatinine is described here. Methods: Copper-creatinine and iron-creatinine complexes have peroxidase activity. With 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and diisopropyl benzene dihydroperoxide (DBDH); the peroxidase activity of copper-creatinine and iron-creatinine complexes can be demonstrated. This reaction was used in the assay of urine creatinine either in solution or by a suitably impregnated urine dipstick. Results: Our method based on the peroxidase activity of the copper-creatinine complex has an analytical range for creatinine of 100 mg/L (0.884 mmol/L) to 3000 mg/L (26.52 mmol/L). The creatinine assay is free from most interfering compounds that may be present in urine. Hemoglobin is an interferent, and its effects can be reduced but not eliminated by the addition of 4-hydroxy-2-methyl quinoline. We do not recommend using the dipsticks when visible blood is present or if the dipstick blood test is positive. The copper-creatinine complex oxidizes ascorbic acid; however, we were able to modify the reaction conditions so that ascorbic acid at Discussion: With the simultaneous measurement of creatinine and albumin in urine, the albumin/creatinine ratio can be determined effectively reducing or eliminating the occasional false-negative and false-positive result in those with dilute or concentrated urines, respectively. The dipstick test for these analytes permits the simple identification of individuals with possible albuminuria and could serve well in a point-of-care setting.
25 Feb 2016-Analytica Chimica Acta
TL;DR: A colorimetric method that could be observed with naked eye and used copper nanoclusters for cost-effective detection of DNA in Hepatitis B virus, which has potential applications in correct diagnosis of genetic disease and monitoring of gene therapy in the poverty-stricken areas.
Abstract: DNA detection plays an important role in early diagnosis of genetic disease. The conventional detection methods of DNA are based on expensive equipment, which do not meet the demands of developing countries. Thus, we developed a colorimetric method, which could be observed with naked eye and used copper nanoclusters for cost-effective. Moreover, the target of this method is the DNA in Hepatitis B virus that is one of the most popular chronic viral infections in developing countries over the past years. Our method was sensitive and the limit of detection was 12 × 10(9) molecules. Three-base-pair mismatches target DNA was detected easily. These results revealed the favorable sensitivity and selectivity of this approach. Most importantly, our method may have potential applications in correct diagnosis of genetic disease and monitoring of gene therapy in the poverty-stricken areas.
04 Aug 2009-Analytica Chimica Acta
TL;DR: A simple, low cost and portable microfluidic system based on a two-point alkaline picrate kinetic reaction has been developed for the determination of urinary creatinine and exhibited good reproducibility.
Abstract: A simple, low cost and portable microfluidic system based on a two-point alkaline picrate kinetic reaction has been developed for the determination of urinary creatinine. The creatinine reacts with picric acid under alkaline conditions, forming an orange-red colour, which is monitored on PDMS microchip using a portable miniature fibre optic spectrometer at 510 nm. A linear range was displayed from 0 to 40 mg L −1 creatinine ( r 2 = 0.997) with a detection limit of 3.3 mg L −1 (S/N = 3). On-chip absorbance signals are reproducible, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.1%, when evaluated with 20 mg L −1 creatinine ( n = 10). The standard curves in which the intra-run CVs (4.7–6.8%) and inter-run CVs (7.9%) obtained were performed on three different days and exhibited good reproducibility. The method was highly correlated with the conventional spectrophotometric method when real urine samples were evaluated ( r 2 = 0.948 ; n = 15).
TL;DR: Advances in microfluidic techniques for urine analysis may improve current routine clinical practices, particularly for point-of-care (POC) applications.
Abstract: Microfluidics has attracted considerable attention since its early development in the 1980s and has experienced rapid growth in the past three decades due to advantages associated with miniaturization, integration and automation. Urine analysis is a common, fast and inexpensive clinical diagnostic tool in health care. In this article, we will be reviewing recent works starting from 2005 to the present for urine analysis using microfluidic devices or systems and to provide in-depth commentary about these techniques. Moreover, commercial strips that are often treated as chips and their readers for urine analysis will also be briefly discussed. We start with an introduction to the physiological significance of various components or measurement standards in urine analysis, followed by a brief introduction to enabling microfluidic technologies. Then, microfluidic devices or systems for sample pretreatments and for sensing urinary macromolecules, micromolecules, as well as multiplexed analysis are reviewed, in this sequence. Moreover, a microfluidic chip for urinary proteome profiling is also discussed, followed by a section discussing commercial products. Finally, the authors' perspectives on microfluidic-based urine analysis are provided. These advancements in microfluidic techniques for urine analysis may improve current routine clinical practices, particularly for point-of-care (POC) applications.
TL;DR: A disposable nonenzymatic sensor for creatinine was developed by electrodepositing copper on screen printed carbon electrodes as mentioned in this paper, which showed a detection limit of 0.0746μM with a linear range of 6-378μΜ.
Abstract: A disposable non-enzymatic sensor for creatinine was developed by electrodepositing copper on screen printed carbon electrodes. The sensor was characterized using electrochemical and microscopic techniques. Electrochemical detection of creatinine was carried out in phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.4. The estimation was based on the formation of soluble copper-creatinine complex. The formation of copper-creatinine complex was established using the pseudoperoxidase activity of copper-creatinine complex. The sensor showed a detection limit of 0.0746 μM with a linear range of 6–378 μΜ. The sensor exhibited a stable response to creatinine and found to be free from interference from molecules like urea, glucose, ascorbic acid and dopamine. Real sample analysis was carried out with blood serum.
TL;DR: Clinitek Microalbumin strips can be used for screening purposes in the general population since they correctly classify a significant percentage of subjects, particularly those with a normal albuminuria, particularly in the diabetics.
Abstract: Background Albuminuria is a sensitive marker of renal derangement and has been included in a number of studies investigating chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). This study is aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performances of a strip for measuring the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in the general population and to compare it with those found in a diabetic population. Methods Urine samples were obtained from 201 consecutive subjects enrolled in an epidemiological study and from 259 type 2 diabetic patients. Urine was tested for albumin and creatinine using the strip (Clinitek Microalbumin) and laboratory methods. A hundred samples were stored under various conditions to assess analyte stability. Results In the general population, the strip test reached a 90% sensitivity and 91% specificity, considering the laboratory method as the 'gold standard', sparing >80% of subjects the laboratory tests at the expense of a 1% false negative rate and an 8% false positive rate. Regarding sensitivity and specificity, the ACR test performs very similarly in the general population and in the diabetics. The stability study showed that storage at -20 degrees C induced a significant decrease in the albumin concentration with both methods, such that 5% of the samples were re-classified in the lower ACR class. Storage at -80 degrees C for up to 12 months did not affect the measurement with both methods. Conclusion Clinitek Microalbumin strips can be used for screening purposes in the general population since they correctly classify a significant percentage of subjects, particularly those with a normal albuminuria. Storage at -80 degrees C does not affect strip results. Screening with the strip and confirming positive results with a wet chemistry method are an efficient strategy for detecting albuminuria in the general population.