Author

# Michel Barlaud

Other affiliations: University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Institut Universitaire de France

Bio: Michel Barlaud is an academic researcher from Centre national de la recherche scientifique. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wavelet transform & Image segmentation. The author has an hindex of 34, co-authored 247 publications receiving 10493 citations. Previous affiliations of Michel Barlaud include University of Nice Sophia Antipolis & Institut Universitaire de France.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

TL;DR: A scheme for image compression that takes into account psychovisual features both in the space and frequency domains is proposed and it is shown that the wavelet transform is particularly well adapted to progressive transmission.

Abstract: A scheme for image compression that takes into account psychovisual features both in the space and frequency domains is proposed. This method involves two steps. First, a wavelet transform used in order to obtain a set of biorthogonal subclasses of images: the original image is decomposed at different scales using a pyramidal algorithm architecture. The decomposition is along the vertical and horizontal directions and maintains constant the number of pixels required to describe the image. Second, according to Shannon's rate distortion theory, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized using a multiresolution codebook. To encode the wavelet coefficients, a noise shaping bit allocation procedure which assumes that details at high resolution are less visible to the human eye is proposed. In order to allow the receiver to recognize a picture as quickly as possible at minimum cost, a progressive transmission scheme is presented. It is shown that the wavelet transform is particularly well adapted to progressive transmission. >

3,925 citations

••

TL;DR: This paper proposes a deterministic strategy, based on alternate minimizations on the image and the auxiliary variable, which leads to the definition of an original reconstruction algorithm, called ARTUR, which can be applied in a large number of applications in image processing.

Abstract: Many image processing problems are ill-posed and must be regularized. Usually, a roughness penalty is imposed on the solution. The difficulty is to avoid the smoothing of edges, which are very important attributes of the image. In this paper, we first give conditions for the design of such an edge-preserving regularization. Under these conditions, we show that it is possible to introduce an auxiliary variable whose role is twofold. First, it marks the discontinuities and ensures their preservation from smoothing. Second, it makes the criterion half-quadratic. The optimization is then easier. We propose a deterministic strategy, based on alternate minimizations on the image and the auxiliary variable. This leads to the definition of an original reconstruction algorithm, called ARTUR. Some theoretical properties of ARTUR are discussed. Experimental results illustrate the behavior of the algorithm. These results are shown in the field of 2D single photon emission tomography, but this method can be applied in a large number of applications in image processing.

1,360 citations

••

13 Nov 1994

TL;DR: The authors propose a deterministic strategy, based on alternate minimizations on the image and the auxiliary variable, which yields two algorithms, ARTUR and LEGEND, which are applied to the problem of SPECT reconstruction.

Abstract: Many image processing problems are ill-posed and must be regularized. Usually, a roughness penalty is imposed on the solution. The difficulty is to avoid the smoothing of edges, which are very important attributes of the image. The authors first give sufficient conditions for the design of such an edge-preserving regularization. Under these conditions, it is possible to introduce an auxiliary variable whose role is twofold. Firstly, it marks the discontinuities and ensures their preservation from smoothing. Secondly, it makes the criterion half-quadratic. The optimization is then easier. The authors propose a deterministic strategy, based on alternate minimizations on the image and the auxiliary variable. This yields two algorithms, ARTUR and LEGEND. The authors apply these algorithms to the problem of SPECT reconstruction. >

628 citations

••

23 Jun 2008TL;DR: A CUDA implementation of the ldquobrute forcerdquo kNN search and it is shown a speed increase on synthetic and real data by up to one or two orders of magnitude depending on the data, with a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the data size in a given, practical range.

Abstract: Statistical measures coming from information theory represent interesting bases for image and video processing tasks such as image retrieval and video object tracking. For example, let us mention the entropy and the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Accurate estimation of these measures requires to adapt to the local sample density, especially if the data are high-dimensional. The k nearest neighbor (kNN) framework has been used to define efficient variable-bandwidth kernel-based estimators with such a locally adaptive property. Unfortunately, these estimators are computationally intensive since they rely on searching neighbors among large sets of d-dimensional vectors. This computational burden can be reduced by pre-structuring the data, e.g. using binary trees as proposed by the approximated nearest neighbor (ANN) library. Yet, the recent opening of graphics processing units (GPU) to general-purpose computation by means of the NVIDIA CUDA API offers the image and video processing community a powerful platform with parallel calculation capabilities. In this paper, we propose a CUDA implementation of the ldquobrute forcerdquo kNN search and we compare its performances to several CPU-based implementations including an equivalent brute force algorithm and ANN. We show a speed increase on synthetic and real data by up to one or two orders of magnitude depending on the data, with a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the data size in a given, practical range.

509 citations

••

TL;DR: This work considers the problem of segmenting an image through the minimization of an energy criterion involving region and boundary functionals and revisits this problem using the notion of a shape derivative and shows that the same equations can be elegantly derived without going through the unnatural step of converting the region integrals into boundary integrals.

Abstract: We consider the problem of segmenting an image through the minimization of an energy criterion involving region and boundary functionals. We show that one can go from one class to the otherby solving Poisson's orHelmholtz's equation with well-chosen boundar y conditions. Using this equivalence, we study the case of a large class of region functionals by standard methods of the calculus of variations and derive the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. We revisit this problem using the notion of a shape derivative and show that the same equations can be elegantly derived without going through the unnatural step of converting the region integrals into boundary integrals. We also define a larger class of region functionals based on the estimation and comparison to a prototype of the probability density distribution of image features and show how the shape derivative tool allows us to easily compute the corresponding Gateaux derivatives and Euler-Lagrange equations. Finally we apply this new functional to the problem of regions segmentation in sequences of color images. We briefly describe our numerical scheme and show some experimental results.

288 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

•

01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: An introduction to a Transient World and an Approximation Tour of Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases.

Abstract: Introduction to a Transient World. Fourier Kingdom. Discrete Revolution. Time Meets Frequency. Frames. Wavelet Zoom. Wavelet Bases. Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases. An Approximation Tour. Estimations are Approximations. Transform Coding. Appendix A: Mathematical Complements. Appendix B: Software Toolboxes.

17,693 citations

••

TL;DR: The image coding results, calculated from actual file sizes and images reconstructed by the decoding algorithm, are either comparable to or surpass previous results obtained through much more sophisticated and computationally complex methods.

Abstract: Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding, introduced by Shapiro (see IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol.41, no.12, p.3445, 1993), is a very effective and computationally simple technique for image compression. We offer an alternative explanation of the principles of its operation, so that the reasons for its excellent performance can be better understood. These principles are partial ordering by magnitude with a set partitioning sorting algorithm, ordered bit plane transmission, and exploitation of self-similarity across different scales of an image wavelet transform. Moreover, we present a new and different implementation based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT), which provides even better performance than our previously reported extension of EZW that surpassed the performance of the original EZW. The image coding results, calculated from actual file sizes and images reconstructed by the decoding algorithm, are either comparable to or surpass previous results obtained through much more sophisticated and computationally complex methods. In addition, the new coding and decoding procedures are extremely fast, and they can be made even faster, with only small loss in performance, by omitting entropy coding of the bit stream by the arithmetic code.

5,890 citations

••

TL;DR: A scheme for image compression that takes into account psychovisual features both in the space and frequency domains is proposed and it is shown that the wavelet transform is particularly well adapted to progressive transmission.

Abstract: A scheme for image compression that takes into account psychovisual features both in the space and frequency domains is proposed. This method involves two steps. First, a wavelet transform used in order to obtain a set of biorthogonal subclasses of images: the original image is decomposed at different scales using a pyramidal algorithm architecture. The decomposition is along the vertical and horizontal directions and maintains constant the number of pixels required to describe the image. Second, according to Shannon's rate distortion theory, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized using a multiresolution codebook. To encode the wavelet coefficients, a noise shaping bit allocation procedure which assumes that details at high resolution are less visible to the human eye is proposed. In order to allow the receiver to recognize a picture as quickly as possible at minimum cost, a progressive transmission scheme is presented. It is shown that the wavelet transform is particularly well adapted to progressive transmission. >

3,925 citations

••

3,822 citations