Other affiliations: Aalto University, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, University of Oulu ...read more
Bio: Mikko Valkama is an academic researcher from Tampere University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Transmitter & Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. The author has an hindex of 48, co-authored 654 publications receiving 10903 citations. Previous affiliations of Mikko Valkama include Aalto University & Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors carried out general signal analysis of an imbalanced I/Q processing receiver and proposed novel methods for I and Q imbalance compensation using baseband digital signal processing.
Abstract: I/Q signal processing is widely utilized in today's communication receivers However, all I/Q processing receiver structures, such as the low-IF receiver, face a common problem of matching the amplitudes and phases of the I and Q branches In practice, imbalances are unavoidable in the analog front-end, which results in finite and usually insufficient rejection of the image frequency band This causes the image signal to appear as interference on top of the desired signal We carry out general signal analysis of an imbalanced I/Q processing receiver and propose novel methods for I/Q imbalance compensation using baseband digital signal processing A simple structure for compensation is derived, based on a traditional adaptive interference canceller Improved image rejection can also be obtained by using more advanced blind source separation techniques Theoretical analysis of the performance of the proposed imbalance compensation structures is presented In addition, some simulation results are provided in order to further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods The results indicate that the I/Q imbalance can be effectively compensated during the normal operation of the receiver even in the rapidly changing case, as long as a linear system model for the imbalance is valid
TL;DR: Two novel blind low-complexity I/Q imbalance compensation techniques are proposed and analyzed to digitally enhance the analog FE image attenuation in wideband direct-conversion receivers and can provide very good compensation performance with low computational resources and are robust in the face of different imbalance levels and dynamics of the received signals.
Abstract: Communication receivers that utilize I/Q downconversion are troubled by amplitude and phase mismatches between the analog I and Q branches. These mismatches are unavoidable in practice and reduce the obtainable image frequency attenuation to the 20-40-dB range in practical receivers. In wideband multichannel receivers, where the overall bandwidths are in the range of several megahertz and the incoming carriers located at each other's mirror frequencies have a high dynamic range, the image attenuation of the analog front-end (FE) alone is clearly insufficient. In this paper, two novel blind low-complexity I/Q imbalance compensation techniques are proposed and analyzed to digitally enhance the analog FE image attenuation in wideband direct-conversion receivers. The proposed algorithms are grounded on the concept of circular or proper complex random signals, and they are, by design, able to handle the often overlooked yet increasingly important case of frequency-dependent I/Q mismatches. The first technique is an iterative one, stemming from adaptive filtering principles, whereas the second one is a moment-estimation-based block method. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated through computer simulations, as well as real-world laboratory signal measurement examples in practical multicarrier receiver cases. Based on the obtained results, the proposed compensation techniques can provide very good compensation performance with low computational resources and are robust in the face of different imbalance levels and dynamics of the received signals, as well as many other crucial practical aspects such as the effects of the communications channel and carrier synchronization.
TL;DR: The analysis shows that after realistic antenna isolation and RF cancellation, the dominant self-interference waveform at the receiver digital baseband can be modeled through a widely linear transformation of the original transmit data, opposed to classical purely linear models.
Abstract: This paper addresses the modeling and cancellation of self-interference in full-duplex direct-conversion radio transceivers, operating under practical imperfect radio frequency (RF) components. First, detailed self-interference signal modeling is carried out, taking into account the most important RF imperfections, namely, transmitter power amplifier nonlinear distortion as well as transmitter and receiver IQ mixer amplitude and phase imbalances. The analysis shows that after realistic antenna isolation and RF cancellation, the dominant self-interference waveform at the receiver digital baseband can be modeled through a widely linear transformation of the original transmit data, opposed to classical purely linear models. Such widely linear self-interference waveform is physically stemming from the transmitter and receiver IQ imaging and cannot be efficiently suppressed by classical linear digital cancellation. Motivated by this, novel widely linear digital self-interference cancellation processing is then proposed and formulated, combined with efficient parameter estimation methods. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed widely linear cancellation processing clearly outperforms the existing linear solutions, hence enabling the use of practical low-cost RF front ends utilizing IQ mixing in full-duplex transceivers.
TL;DR: It is observed that the nonlinear distortion produced by the transmitter PA is a significant issue in a full-duplex transceiver and, when using cheaper and less linear components, also the receiver chain nonlinearities become considerable.
Abstract: Despite the intensive recent research on wireless single-channel full-duplex communications, relatively little is known about the transceiver chain nonidealities of full-duplex devices. In this paper, the effect of nonlinear distortion occurring in the transmitter power amplifier (PA) and the receiver chain is analyzed, beside the dynamic range requirements of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). This is done with detailed system calculations, which combine the properties of the individual electronics components to jointly model the complete transceiver chain, including self-interference cancellation. They also quantify the decrease in the dynamic range for the signal of interest caused by self-interference at the analog-to-digital interface. Using these system calculations, we provide comprehensive numerical results for typical transceiver parameters. The analytical results are also confirmed with full waveform simulations. We observe that the nonlinear distortion produced by the transmitter PA is a significant issue in a full-duplex transceiver and, when using cheaper and less linear components, also the receiver chain nonlinearities become considerable. It is also shown that, with digitally intensive self-interference cancellation, the quantization noise of the ADCs is another significant problem.
TL;DR: Novel state-of-the-art antenna solutions as well as digital self-interference cancellation algorithms for compact MIMO full-duplex relays, specifically targeted for reduced-cost deployments in local area networks are presented.
Abstract: In-band full-duplex relays transmit and receive simultaneously at the same center frequency, hence offering enhanced spectral efficiency for relay deployment. In order to deploy such full-duplex relays, it is necessary to efficiently mitigate the inherent self-interference stemming from the strong transmit signal coupling to the sensitive receive chain. In this article, we present novel state-of-the-art antenna solutions as well as digital self-interference cancellation algorithms for compact MIMO fullduplex relays, specifically targeted for reduced-cost deployments in local area networks. The presented antenna design builds on resonant wavetraps and is shown to provide passive isolations on the order of 60–70 dB. We also discuss and present advanced digital cancellation solutions, beyond classical linear processing, specifically tailored against nonlinear distortion of the power amplifier when operating close to saturation. Measured results from a complete demonstrator system, integrating antennas, RF cancellation, and nonlinear digital cancellation, are also presented, evidencing close to 100 dB of overall self-interference suppression. The reported results indicate that building and deploying compact full-duplex MIMO relays is already technologically feasible.
TL;DR: An overview of the Internet of Things with emphasis on enabling technologies, protocols, and application issues, and some of the key IoT challenges presented in the recent literature are provided and a summary of related research work is provided.
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the Internet of Things (IoT) with emphasis on enabling technologies, protocols, and application issues. The IoT is enabled by the latest developments in RFID, smart sensors, communication technologies, and Internet protocols. The basic premise is to have smart sensors collaborate directly without human involvement to deliver a new class of applications. The current revolution in Internet, mobile, and machine-to-machine (M2M) technologies can be seen as the first phase of the IoT. In the coming years, the IoT is expected to bridge diverse technologies to enable new applications by connecting physical objects together in support of intelligent decision making. This paper starts by providing a horizontal overview of the IoT. Then, we give an overview of some technical details that pertain to the IoT enabling technologies, protocols, and applications. Compared to other survey papers in the field, our objective is to provide a more thorough summary of the most relevant protocols and application issues to enable researchers and application developers to get up to speed quickly on how the different protocols fit together to deliver desired functionalities without having to go through RFCs and the standards specifications. We also provide an overview of some of the key IoT challenges presented in the recent literature and provide a summary of related research work. Moreover, we explore the relation between the IoT and other emerging technologies including big data analytics and cloud and fog computing. We also present the need for better horizontal integration among IoT services. Finally, we present detailed service use-cases to illustrate how the different protocols presented in the paper fit together to deliver desired IoT services.
01 Jan 2016
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TL;DR: A general probable 5G cellular network architecture is proposed, which shows that D2D, small cell access points, network cloud, and the Internet of Things can be a part of 5G Cellular network architecture.
Abstract: In the near future, i.e., beyond 4G, some of the prime objectives or demands that need to be addressed are increased capacity, improved data rate, decreased latency, and better quality of service. To meet these demands, drastic improvements need to be made in cellular network architecture. This paper presents the results of a detailed survey on the fifth generation (5G) cellular network architecture and some of the key emerging technologies that are helpful in improving the architecture and meeting the demands of users. In this detailed survey, the prime focus is on the 5G cellular network architecture, massive multiple input multiple output technology, and device-to-device communication (D2D). Along with this, some of the emerging technologies that are addressed in this paper include interference management, spectrum sharing with cognitive radio, ultra-dense networks, multi-radio access technology association, full duplex radios, millimeter wave solutions for 5G cellular networks, and cloud technologies for 5G radio access networks and software defined networks. In this paper, a general probable 5G cellular network architecture is proposed, which shows that D2D, small cell access points, network cloud, and the Internet of Things can be a part of 5G cellular network architecture. A detailed survey is included regarding current research projects being conducted in different countries by research groups and institutions that are working on 5G technologies.