Author

# Nicholas C. Handy

Other affiliations: University of California, Berkeley

Bio: Nicholas C. Handy is an academic researcher from University of Cambridge. The author has contributed to research in topics: Density functional theory & Ab initio. The author has an hindex of 88, co-authored 381 publications receiving 38904 citations. Previous affiliations of Nicholas C. Handy include University of California, Berkeley.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this article, a new hybrid exchange-correlation functional named CAM-B3LYP is proposed, which combines the hybrid qualities of B3LYP and the long-range correction presented by Tawada et al.

Abstract: A new hybrid exchange–correlation functional named CAM-B3LYP is proposed. It combines the hybrid qualities of B3LYP and the long-range correction presented by Tawada et al. [J. Chem. Phys., in press]. We demonstrate that CAM-B3LYP yields atomization energies of similar quality to those from B3LYP, while also performing well for charge transfer excitations in a dipeptide model, which B3LYP underestimates enormously. The CAM-B3LYP functional comprises of 0.19 Hartree–Fock (HF) plus 0.81 Becke 1988 (B88) exchange interaction at short-range, and 0.65 HF plus 0.35 B88 at long-range. The intermediate region is smoothly described through the standard error function with parameter 0.33.

10,882 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a local exchange functional called OPTX was proposed to approximate the Hartree-Fock (HF) energies of the 18 first and second row atoms. But it was shown that neither δ p or t = Σ δ i |2 improves the fit to these atomic energies.

Abstract: We first attempt to determine a local exchange functional Ex[p] which accurately reproduces the Hartree-Fock (HF) energies of the 18 first and second row atoms. Ex[p is determined from p and |δp|, and we find that we can improve significantly upon Becke's original generalized gradient approximation functional (commonly called B88X) by allowing the coefficient of the Dirac exchange term to be optimized (it is argued that molecules do not behave like the uniform electron gas). We call this new two parameter exchange functional OPTX. We find that neither δ p or t = Σ δ i |2 improve the fit to these atomic energies. These exchange functionals include not only exchange, but also left-right correlation. It is therefore proposed that this functional provides a definition for exchange energy plus left-right correlation energy when used in Kohn-Sham (KS) calculations. We call this energy the Kohn-Sham exchange (or KSX) energy. It is shown that for nearly all molecules studied these KSX energies are lower than the ...

1,467 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation energy function was developed using a least-squares procedure involving numerical exchange correlation potentials and experimental energetics and nuclear gradients.

Abstract: We recently presented a new method for developing generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation energy functionals, using a least-squares procedure involving numerical exchange-correlation potentials and experimental energetics and nuclear gradients. In this paper we use the same method to develop a new GGA functional, denoted HCTH, based on an expansion recently suggested by Becke [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8554 (1997)]. For our extensive training set, the new functional yields improved energetics compared to both the BLYP and B3LYP functionals [Phys. Rev. A 38, 3098 (1988); Phys. Rev. B 37, 785 (1988); J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5648 (1993); J. Phys. Chem. 98, 11623 (1994)]. The geometries of these systems, together with those of a set of transition metal compounds, are shown to be an improvement over the BLYP functional, while the reaction barriers for six hydrogen abstraction reactions are comparable to those of B3LYP. These improvements are achieved without introducing any fraction of exact orbital exchange into the new functional. We have also re-optimized the functional of Becke—which does involve exact exchange—for use in self-consistent calculations.

1,364 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors derived the classical Hamiltonian of a polyatomic system in terms of these coordinates and their conjugate momenta for the general case of an N atom system with a given nonzero value of the total angular momentum.

Abstract: The reaction path on the potential energy surface of a polyatomic molecule is the steepest descent path (if mass‐weighted Cartesian coordinates are used) connecting saddle points and minima. For an N‐atom system in 3d space it is shown how the 3N‐6 internal coordinates can be chosen to be the reaction coordinate s, the arc length along the reaction path, plus (3N‐7) normal coordinates that describe vibrations orthogonal to the reaction path. The classical (and quantum) Hamiltonian is derived in terms of these coordinates and their conjugate momenta for the general case of an N atom system with a given nonzero value of the total angular momentum. One of the important facts that makes this analysis feasible (and therefore interesting) is that all the quantities necessary to construct this Hamiltonian, and thus permit dynamical studies, are obtainable from a relatively modest number of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of the potential energy surface. As a simple example, it is shown how the effects o...

1,296 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a self-consistent Kohn-sham algorithm is proposed to correct the asymptotic deficiency in the potentials of conventional exchange-correlation functionals.

Abstract: Conventional continuum exchange-correlation functionals (e.g., local density approximation, generalized gradient approximation) offer a poor description of many response properties, such as static polarizabilities and single photon vertical excitation energies to Rydberg states. These deficiencies are related to errors in the virtual Kohn–Sham orbitals and eigenvalues, which arise due to a fundamental deficiency in the potentials of conventional continuum functionals. Namely, although these potentials approximately average over the exact integer discontinuity in energetically important regions, they fail to do so asymptotically, because they vanish. Our recent functional HCTH [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 6264 (1998)] was designed with this deficiency in mind, although its potential still fails to exhibit the appropriate asymptotic form. In this paper, we present a new procedure that explicitly corrects this asymptotic deficiency for any continuum functional. Self-consistent Kohn–Sham calculations are performed us...

858 citations

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TL;DR: A new density functional of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type for general chemistry applications termed B97‐D is proposed, based on Becke's power‐series ansatz from 1997, and is explicitly parameterized by including damped atom‐pairwise dispersion corrections of the form C6 · R−6.

Abstract: A new density functional (DF) of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type for general chemistry applications termed B97-D is proposed. It is based on Becke's power-series ansatz from 1997 and is explicitly parameterized by including damped atom-pairwise dispersion corrections of the form C(6) x R(-6). A general computational scheme for the parameters used in this correction has been established and parameters for elements up to xenon and a scaling factor for the dispersion part for several common density functionals (BLYP, PBE, TPSS, B3LYP) are reported. The new functional is tested in comparison with other GGAs and the B3LYP hybrid functional on standard thermochemical benchmark sets, for 40 noncovalently bound complexes, including large stacked aromatic molecules and group II element clusters, and for the computation of molecular geometries. Further cross-validation tests were performed for organometallic reactions and other difficult problems for standard functionals. In summary, it is found that B97-D belongs to one of the most accurate general purpose GGAs, reaching, for example for the G97/2 set of heat of formations, a mean absolute deviation of only 3.8 kcal mol(-1). The performance for noncovalently bound systems including many pure van der Waals complexes is exceptionally good, reaching on the average CCSD(T) accuracy. The basic strategy in the development to restrict the density functional description to shorter electron correlation lengths scales and to describe situations with medium to large interatomic distances by damped C(6) x R(-6) terms seems to be very successful, as demonstrated for some notoriously difficult reactions. As an example, for the isomerization of larger branched to linear alkanes, B97-D is the only DF available that yields the right sign for the energy difference. From a practical point of view, the new functional seems to be quite robust and it is thus suggested as an efficient and accurate quantum chemical method for large systems where dispersion forces are of general importance.

23,058 citations

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TL;DR: The M06-2X meta-exchange correlation function is proposed in this paper, which is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, and is a high-non-locality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange.

Abstract: We present two new hybrid meta exchange- correlation functionals, called M06 and M06-2X. The M06 functional is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, whereas the M06-2X functional is a high-nonlocality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange (2X), and it is parametrized only for nonmetals.The functionals, along with the previously published M06-L local functional and the M06-HF full-Hartree–Fock functionals, constitute the M06 suite of complementary functionals. We assess these four functionals by comparing their performance to that of 12 other functionals and Hartree–Fock theory for 403 energetic data in 29 diverse databases, including ten databases for thermochemistry, four databases for kinetics, eight databases for noncovalent interactions, three databases for transition metal bonding, one database for metal atom excitation energies, and three databases for molecular excitation energies. We also illustrate the performance of these 17 methods for three databases containing 40 bond lengths and for databases containing 38 vibrational frequencies and 15 vibrational zero point energies. We recommend the M06-2X functional for applications involving main-group thermochemistry, kinetics, noncovalent interactions, and electronic excitation energies to valence and Rydberg states. We recommend the M06 functional for application in organometallic and inorganometallic chemistry and for noncovalent interactions.

22,326 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a direct difference method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors.

Abstract: A new direct difference method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors. It appears that these new features can give a strong reduction in the error of the interaction energy, and they seem to be particularly suitable for computations in the important region near the minimum energy. It has been generally accepted that this problem is dominated by unresolved difficulties and the relation of the new methods to these apparent difficulties is analysed here.

19,483 citations

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TL;DR: A description of the ab initio quantum chemistry package GAMESS, which can be treated with wave functions ranging from the simplest closed‐shell case up to a general MCSCF case, permitting calculations at the necessary level of sophistication.

Abstract: A description of the ab initio quantum chemistry package GAMESS is presented. Chemical systems containing atoms through radon can be treated with wave functions ranging from the simplest closed-shell case up to a general MCSCF case, permitting calculations at the necessary level of sophistication. Emphasis is given to novel features of the program. The parallelization strategy used in the RHF, ROHF, UHF, and GVB sections of the program is described, and detailed speecup results are given. Parallel calculations can be run on ordinary workstations as well as dedicated parallel machines. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

18,546 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the self-interaction correction (SIC) of any density functional for the ground-state energy is discussed. But the exact density functional is strictly selfinteraction-free (i.e., orbitals demonstrably do not selfinteract), but many approximations to it, including the local spin-density (LSD) approximation for exchange and correlation, are not.

Abstract: The exact density functional for the ground-state energy is strictly self-interaction-free (i.e., orbitals demonstrably do not self-interact), but many approximations to it, including the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation for exchange and correlation, are not. We present two related methods for the self-interaction correction (SIC) of any density functional for the energy; correction of the self-consistent one-electron potenial follows naturally from the variational principle. Both methods are sanctioned by the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem. Although the first method introduces an orbital-dependent single-particle potential, the second involves a local potential as in the Kohn-Sham scheme. We apply the first method to LSD and show that it properly conserves the number content of the exchange-correlation hole, while substantially improving the description of its shape. We apply this method to a number of physical problems, where the uncorrected LSD approach produces systematic errors. We find systematic improvements, qualitative as well as quantitative, from this simple correction. Benefits of SIC in atomic calculations include (i) improved values for the total energy and for the separate exchange and correlation pieces of it, (ii) accurate binding energies of negative ions, which are wrongly unstable in LSD, (iii) more accurate electron densities, (iv) orbital eigenvalues that closely approximate physical removal energies, including relaxation, and (v) correct longrange behavior of the potential and density. It appears that SIC can also remedy the LSD underestimate of the band gaps in insulators (as shown by numerical calculations for the rare-gas solids and CuCl), and the LSD overestimate of the cohesive energies of transition metals. The LSD spin splitting in atomic Ni and $s\ensuremath{-}d$ interconfigurational energies of transition elements are almost unchanged by SIC. We also discuss the admissibility of fractional occupation numbers, and present a parametrization of the electron-gas correlation energy at any density, based on the recent results of Ceperley and Alder.

16,027 citations