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Nigel Davies

Bio: Nigel Davies is an academic researcher from Lancaster University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Mobile computing & Ubiquitous computing. The author has an hindex of 59, co-authored 289 publication(s) receiving 20229 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Nigel Davies include University of Arizona & University of Cambridge.
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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Oct 2021
Abstract: Data providers holding sensitive medical data often need to exchange data pertaining to patients for whom they hold particular data. This involves requesting information from other providers to augment the data they hold. However, revealing the superset of identifiers for which a provider requires information can, in itself, leak sensitive private data. Data linkage services exist to facilitate the exchange of anonymised identifiers between data providers. Reliance on third parties to provide these services still raises issues around the trust, privacy and security of such implementations. The rise and use of blockchain and distributed ledger technologies over the last decade has, alongside innovation and disruption in the financial sphere, also brought to the fore and refined the use of associated privacy-preserving cryptographic protocols and techniques. These techniques are now being adopted and used in fields removed from the original financial use cases. In this paper we present a combination of a blockchain-native auditing and trust-enabling environment alongside a query exchange protocol. This allows the exchange of sets of patient identifiers between data providers in such a way that only identifiers lying in the intersection of sets of identifiers are revealed and shared, allowing further secure and privacy-preserving exchange of medical information to be carried out between the two parties. We present the design and implementation of a system demonstrating the effectiveness of these exchange protocols giving a reference architecture for the implementation of such a system.

Journal ArticleDOI
Bran Knowles1, Vicki L. Hanson2, Yvonne Rogers3, Anne Marie Piper4  +16 moreInstitutions (18)
TL;DR: Including older adults as full stakeholders in digital society is a key priority for the next generation of policymakers and decision-makers.
Abstract: "The quest for youth—so futile. Age and wisdom have their graces too."— Jean Luc Picard It is an increasingly global phenomenon that societies promote the notion of youth as the preferred state.a In stark contrast to the "wise elder" of ages past, today old age is assumed to be marked by loss of physical and cognitive ability, diminished relevance, and as we are sadly seeing with the COVID-19 pandemic, devalued humanity.18 In many ways, it is not surprising that such stereotypes are reflected in our technologies: tech companies compete for territory in an already overcrowded youth market; whereas older adults,b if considered users at all, are offered little more than fall alarms, activity monitors, and senior-friendly (often lower functionality) versions of existing tools. Meanwhile, there is a growing trend of workers aging out of the tech industry as early as their mid-40s,17 reflecting the higher value placed on the perspectives of those who represent the default target demographic.

6 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Nicola J. Bidwell1, Chris Elsden2, Ludwig Trotter3, Josh Hallwright4  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
06 May 2021
Abstract: Smart Donations is a blockchain-based platform that offers users ‘contracts’ that donate funds to certain causes in response to real-world events e.g., whenever an earthquake is detected or an activist tweets about refugees. We designed Smart donations with Oxfam Australia, trialled it for 8-weeks with 86 people, recorded platform analytics and qualitatively analysed questionnaires and interviews about user experiences. Temporal qualities emerge when automation enforces conditions that contributed to participants’ awareness of events that are usually unconscious, and senses of immediacy in contributing to crisis response and ongoing involvement in situations far-away while awaiting conditions to be met. We suggest data driven automation can reveal diverse temporal registers, in real-world phenomena, sociality, morality and everyday life, which contributes to experiencing a ‘right time’ to donate that is not limited to productivity or efficiency. Thus, we recommend a sensitivity to right time in designing for multiple temporalities in FinTech more generally.

Journal ArticleDOI
Mateusz Mikusz1, Peter Shaw1, Nigel Davies1, Petteri Nurmi2  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: The experiences of designing, developing and operating the world’s first comprehensive display personalisation service for mobile users are reported on, and a series of reflections are offered to inform the design of future systems.
Abstract: Widespread sensing devices enable a world in which physical spaces become personalised in the presence of mobile users. An important example of such personalisation is the use of pervasive displays to show content that matches the requirements of proximate viewers. Despite prior work on prototype systems that use mobile devices to personalise displays, no significant attempts to trial such systems have been carried out. In this article, we report on our experiences of designing, developing and operating the world’s first comprehensive display personalisation service for mobile users. Through a set of rigorous quantitative measures and 11 potential user/stakeholder interviews, we demonstrate the success of the platform in realising display personalisation, and offer a series of reflections to inform the design of future systems.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Zhi Ma1, Sheng Zhang1, Zhiqi Chen1, Tao Han2  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) has become an attractive solution to enhance the computing and storage capacity of mobile devices by leveraging available resources on edge nodes. In MEC, the arrivals of tasks are highly dynamic and are hard to predict precisely. It is of great importance yet very challenging to assign the tasks to edge nodes with guaranteed system performance. In this article, we aim to optimize the revenue earned by each edge node by optimally offloading tasks to the edge nodes. We formulate the revenue-driven online task offloading (ROTO) problem, which is proved to be NP-hard. We first relax ROTO to a linear fractional programming problem, for which we propose the Level Balanced Allocation (LBA) algorithm. We then show the performance guarantee of LBA through rigorous theoretical analysis, and present the LB-Rounding algorithm for ROTO using the primal-dual technique. The algorithm achieves an approximation ratio of $2(1+\xi)\ln (d+1)$ 2 ( 1 + ξ ) ln ( d + 1 ) with a considerable probability, where $d$ d is the maximum number of process slots of an edge node and $\xi$ ξ is a small constant. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated through both trace-driven simulations and testbed experiments. Results show that our proposed scheme is more efficient compared to baseline algorithms.

Journal ArticleDOI
PanwarNisha1, SharmaShantanu2, WangGuoxi3, MehrotraSharad3  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
28 Feb 2022
Abstract: Contemporary IoT environments, such as smart buildings, require end-users to trust data-capturing rules published by the systems. There are several reasons why such a trust is misplaced—IoT systems...

Journal ArticleDOI
Sung Ho Choi1, Kyeong-Beom Park1, Dong Hyeon Roh1, Jae Yeol Lee1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: For human-robot collaboration (HRC), one of the most practical methods to ensure human safety with a vision-based system is establishing a minimum safe distance. This study proposes a novel integrated mixed reality (MR) system for safety-aware HRC using deep learning and digital twin generation. The proposed approach can accurately measure the minimum safe distance in real-time and provide MR-based task assistance to the human operator. The approach integrates MR with safety-related monitoring by tracking the shared workplace and providing user-centric visualization through smart MR glasses for safe and effective HRC. Two RGB-D sensors are used to reconstruct and track the working environment. One sensor scans one area of the physical environment through 3D point cloud data. The other also scans another area of the environment and tracks the user's 3D skeletal information. In addition, the two partially scanned environments are registered together by applying a fast global registration method to two sets of the 3D point cloud. Furthermore, deep learning-based instance segmentation is applied to the target object's 3D point cloud to increase the registration between the real robot and its virtual robot, the digital twin of the real robot. While only 3D point cloud data are widely used in previous studies, this study proposes a simple yet effective 3D offset-based safety distance calculation method based on the robot's digital twin and the human skeleton. The 3D offset-based method allows for real-time applicability without sacrificing the accuracy of safety distance calculation for HRI. In addition, two comparative evaluations were conducted to confirm the originality and advantage of the proposed MR-based HRC.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Smartphones and apps exert a decisive influence on the tourism industry. However, cultural differences can be a barrier to technology-transfer and they influence all aspects of individuals' behavior. In this regard, cultural intelligence (CQ) enables individuals to deal more effectively with these differences, and those with a high CQ are more adaptable and able to cope in cultural environments other than their own. The aim of the present study is to propose and validate a model in which CQ is an antecedent of satisfaction with the travel app and with the tourism experience. Based on a sample of 243 Spanish tourists who used a travel app on their trip, the study finds that a tourist's CQ influences their satisfaction both with the app and with the tourism experience. It further demonstrates the influence of satisfaction with the travel app on satisfaction with the tourism experience. This research holds a series of implications of significant interest both for scholars and professionals in the tourism industry.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Internet of Things enables to connect the physical world to digital business processes (BP) and allows a BP to (1) consider real-world data to take more informed business decisions, (2) automate and/or improve BP tasks, and (3) adapt itself to the physical execution environment. We refer to these processes as IoT-enhanced BPs. Although numerous researchers have studied this subject, there are still some challenges to be faced. For instance, the need of a modelling solution that does not increase the notation complexity to facilitate further analysis and engineering decision making, or an execution approach that provides a high degree of independence between the process and the underlying IoT device technology. The objective of this work is defining an approach that (1) considers important intrinsic characteristics of IoT-enhanced BPs at modelling level without growing the complexity of the modelling language, and (2) facilitates the execution of the IoT-enhanced BPs represented in models independently from IoT devices’ technology. To do so, we present a modelling approach that uses standard BPMN concepts to model IoT-enhanced BPs without modifying its metamodel. It applies the Separation of Concern (SoC) design principle: BPMN is used to describe IoT-enhanced BPs while low-level real-world data is captured in an ontology. Finally, a microservice architecture is proposed to execute BPMN models and facilitate its integration with the physical world. This architecture provides high flexibility to support multiples IoT device technologies as well as their evolution and maintenance. The evaluation done allows us to conclude that the application of the SoC principle using BPMN and ontologies facilitates the definition of intrinsic characteristics of IoT-enhanced BPs without increasing the complexity of the BPMN metamodel. Besides, the proposed microservice architecture provides a high degree of decoupling between the created models and the underlying IoT technology.

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Author's H-index: 59

No. of papers from the Author in previous years