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Sally Floyd

Bio: Sally Floyd is an academic researcher from Institute of Company Secretaries of India. The author has contributed to research in topics: Network congestion & TCP Friendly Rate Control. The author has an hindex of 65, co-authored 109 publications receiving 42057 citations. Previous affiliations of Sally Floyd include University of California, Berkeley & AT&T.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Red gateways are designed to accompany a transport-layer congestion control protocol such as TCP and have no bias against bursty traffic and avoids the global synchronization of many connections decreasing their window at the same time.
Abstract: The authors present random early detection (RED) gateways for congestion avoidance in packet-switched networks. The gateway detects incipient congestion by computing the average queue size. The gateway could notify connections of congestion either by dropping packets arriving at the gateway or by setting a bit in packet headers. When the average queue size exceeds a present threshold, the gateway drops or marks each arriving packet with a certain probability, where the exact probability is a function of the average queue size. RED gateways keep the average queue size low while allowing occasional bursts of packets in the queue. During congestion, the probability that the gateway notifies a particular connection to reduce its window is roughly proportional to that connection's share of the bandwidth through the gateway. RED gateways are designed to accompany a transport-layer congestion control protocol such as TCP. The RED gateway has no bias against bursty traffic and avoids the global synchronization of many connections decreasing their window at the same time. Simulations of a TCP/IP network are used to illustrate the performance of RED gateways. >

6,198 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that user-initiated TCP session arrivals, such as remote-login and file-transfer, are well-modeled as Poisson processes with fixed hourly rates, but that other connection arrivals deviate considerably from Poisson.
Abstract: Network arrivals are often modeled as Poisson processes for analytic simplicity, even though a number of traffic studies have shown that packet interarrivals are not exponentially distributed. We evaluate 24 wide area traces, investigating a number of wide area TCP arrival processes (session and connection arrivals, FTP data connection arrivals within FTP sessions, and TELNET packet arrivals) to determine the error introduced by modeling them using Poisson processes. We find that user-initiated TCP session arrivals, such as remote-login and file-transfer, are well-modeled as Poisson processes with fixed hourly rates, but that other connection arrivals deviate considerably from Poisson; that modeling TELNET packet interarrivals as exponential grievously underestimates the burstiness of TELNET traffic, but using the empirical Tcplib interarrivals preserves burstiness over many time scales; and that FTP data connection arrivals within FTP sessions come bunched into "connection bursts", the largest of which are so large that they completely dominate FTP data traffic. Finally, we offer some results regarding how our findings relate to the possible self-similarity of wide area traffic. >

3,915 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that router mechanisms are needed to identify and restrict the bandwidth of selected high-bandwidth best-effort flows in times of congestion, and several general approaches are discussed for identifying those flows suitable for bandwidth regulation.
Abstract: This paper considers the potentially negative impacts of an increasing deployment of non-congestion-controlled best-effort traffic on the Internet. These negative impacts range from extreme unfairness against competing TCP traffic to the potential for congestion collapse. To promote the inclusion of end-to-end congestion control in the design of future protocols using best-effort traffic, we argue that router mechanisms are needed to identify and restrict the bandwidth of selected high-bandwidth best-effort flows in times of congestion. The paper discusses several general approaches for identifying those flows suitable for bandwidth regulation. These approaches are to identify a high-bandwidth flow in times of congestion as unresponsive, "not TCP-friendly", or simply using disproportionate bandwidth. A flow that is not "TCP-friendly" is one whose long-term arrival rate exceeds that of any conformant TCP in the same circumstances. An unresponsive flow is one failing to reduce its offered load at a router in response to an increased packet drop rate, and a disproportionate-bandwidth flow is one that uses considerably more bandwidth than other flows in a time of congestion.

1,787 citations

01 Oct 1996
TL;DR: TCP may experience poor performance when multiple packets are lost from one window of data because of the limited information available from cumulative acknowledgments.
Abstract: TCP may experience poor performance when multiple packets are lost from one window of data. With the limited information available from cumulative acknowledgments, a TCP sender can only learn about a single lost packet per round trip time. An aggressive sender could choose to retransmit packets early, but such retransmitted segments may have already been successfully received.

1,639 citations

01 Apr 2004
TL;DR: The purpose of this document is to advance NewReno TCP's Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery algorithms in RFC 2582 from Experimental to Standards Track status.
Abstract: The purpose of this document is to advance NewReno TCP's Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery algorithms in RFC 2582 from Experimental to Standards Track status.

1,602 citations


Cited by
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Aug 2001
TL;DR: Results from theoretical analysis, simulations, and experiments show that Chord is scalable, with communication cost and the state maintained by each node scaling logarithmically with the number of Chord nodes.
Abstract: A fundamental problem that confronts peer-to-peer applications is to efficiently locate the node that stores a particular data item. This paper presents Chord, a distributed lookup protocol that addresses this problem. Chord provides support for just one operation: given a key, it maps the key onto a node. Data location can be easily implemented on top of Chord by associating a key with each data item, and storing the key/data item pair at the node to which the key maps. Chord adapts efficiently as nodes join and leave the system, and can answer queries even if the system is continuously changing. Results from theoretical analysis, simulations, and experiments show that Chord is scalable, with communication cost and the state maintained by each node scaling logarithmically with the number of Chord nodes.

10,286 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2000
TL;DR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing is presented, a novel routing protocol for wireless datagram networks that uses the positions of routers and a packet's destination to make packet forwarding decisions and its scalability on densely deployed wireless networks is demonstrated.
Abstract: We present Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), a novel routing protocol for wireless datagram networks that uses the positions of routers and a packet's destination to make packet forwarding decisions. GPSR makes greedy forwarding decisions using only information about a router's immediate neighbors in the network topology. When a packet reaches a region where greedy forwarding is impossible, the algorithm recovers by routing around the perimeter of the region. By keeping state only about the local topology, GPSR scales better in per-router state than shortest-path and ad-hoc routing protocols as the number of network destinations increases. Under mobility's frequent topology changes, GPSR can use local topology information to find correct new routes quickly. We describe the GPSR protocol, and use extensive simulation of mobile wireless networks to compare its performance with that of Dynamic Source Routing. Our simulations demonstrate GPSR's scalability on densely deployed wireless networks.

7,384 citations

01 Jul 2003
TL;DR: RTP provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting real-time data over multicast or unicast network services and is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery in a manner scalable to large multicast networks.
Abstract: This memorandum describes RTP, the real-time transport protocol. RTP provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting real-time data, such as audio, video or simulation data, over multicast or unicast network services. RTP does not address resource reservation and does not guarantee quality-of-service for real-time services. The data transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery in a manner scalable to large multicast networks, and to provide minimal control and identification functionality. RTP and RTCP are designed to be independent of the underlying transport and network layers. The protocol supports the use of RTP-level translators and mixers.

7,183 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Aug 2001
TL;DR: The concept of a Content-Addressable Network (CAN) as a distributed infrastructure that provides hash table-like functionality on Internet-like scales is introduced and its scalability, robustness and low-latency properties are demonstrated through simulation.
Abstract: Hash tables - which map "keys" onto "values" - are an essential building block in modern software systems. We believe a similar functionality would be equally valuable to large distributed systems. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a Content-Addressable Network (CAN) as a distributed infrastructure that provides hash table-like functionality on Internet-like scales. The CAN is scalable, fault-tolerant and completely self-organizing, and we demonstrate its scalability, robustness and low-latency properties through simulation.

6,703 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Red gateways are designed to accompany a transport-layer congestion control protocol such as TCP and have no bias against bursty traffic and avoids the global synchronization of many connections decreasing their window at the same time.
Abstract: The authors present random early detection (RED) gateways for congestion avoidance in packet-switched networks. The gateway detects incipient congestion by computing the average queue size. The gateway could notify connections of congestion either by dropping packets arriving at the gateway or by setting a bit in packet headers. When the average queue size exceeds a present threshold, the gateway drops or marks each arriving packet with a certain probability, where the exact probability is a function of the average queue size. RED gateways keep the average queue size low while allowing occasional bursts of packets in the queue. During congestion, the probability that the gateway notifies a particular connection to reduce its window is roughly proportional to that connection's share of the bandwidth through the gateway. RED gateways are designed to accompany a transport-layer congestion control protocol such as TCP. The RED gateway has no bias against bursty traffic and avoids the global synchronization of many connections decreasing their window at the same time. Simulations of a TCP/IP network are used to illustrate the performance of RED gateways. >

6,198 citations