Author

# Sankar K. Pal

Other affiliations: National Academy of Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Maryland, College Park ...read more

Bio: Sankar K. Pal is an academic researcher from Indian Statistical Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fuzzy logic & Fuzzy set. The author has an hindex of 70, co-authored 446 publications receiving 23727 citations. Previous affiliations of Sankar K. Pal include National Academy of Sciences & University of California, Santa Barbara.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: Attempts have been made to cover both fuzzy and non-fuzzy techniques including color image segmentation and neural network based approaches, which addresses the issue of quantitative evaluation of segmentation results.

3,527 citations

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TL;DR: An unsupervised feature selection algorithm suitable for data sets, large in both dimension and size, based on measuring similarity between features whereby redundancy therein is removed, which does not need any search and is fast.

Abstract: In this article, we describe an unsupervised feature selection algorithm suitable for data sets, large in both dimension and size. The method is based on measuring similarity between features whereby redundancy therein is removed. This does not need any search and, therefore, is fast. A new feature similarity measure, called maximum information compression index, is introduced. The algorithm is generic in nature and has the capability of multiscale representation of data sets. The superiority of the algorithm, in terms of speed and performance, is established extensively over various real-life data sets of different sizes and dimensions. It is also demonstrated how redundancy and information loss in feature selection can be quantified with an entropy measure.

1,432 citations

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TL;DR: A fuzzy neural network model based on the multilayer perceptron, using the backpropagation algorithm, and capable of fuzzy classification of patterns is described, and the results are compared with those of the conventional MLP, the Bayes classifier, and other related models.

Abstract: A fuzzy neural network model based on the multilayer perceptron, using the backpropagation algorithm, and capable of fuzzy classification of patterns is described. The input vector consists of membership values to linguistic properties while the output vector is defined in terms of fuzzy class membership values. This allows efficient modeling of fuzzy uncertain patterns with appropriate weights being assigned to the backpropagated errors depending upon the membership values at the corresponding outputs. During training, the learning rate is gradually decreased in discrete steps until the network converges to a minimum error solution. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on a speech recognition problem. The results are compared with those of the conventional MLP, the Bayes classifier, and other related models. >

1,031 citations

01 Jan 1994

TL;DR: The basic structure of fuzzy sets theory as it applies to the major problems encountered in the design of a pattern recognition system is described.

Abstract: FUZZY sets were introduced in 1965 by Lotfi Zadeh as a new way to represent vagueness in everyday life. They are a generalization of conventional set theory, one of the basic structures underlying computational mathematics and models. Computational pattern recognition has played a central role in the development of fuzzy models because fuzzy interpretations of data structures are a very natural and intuitively plausible way to formulate and solve various problems. Fuzzy control theory has also provided a wide variety of real, fielded system applications of fuzzy technology. We shall have little more to say about the growth of fuzzy models in control, except to the extent that pattern recognition algorithms and methods described in this book impact control systems. Collected here are many of the seminal papers in the field. There will be, of course, omissions that are neither by intent nor ignorance; we cannot reproduce all of the important papers that have helped in the evolution of fuzzy pattern recognition (there may be as many as five hundred) even in this narrow application domain. We will attempt, in each chapter introduction, to comment on some of the important papers that not been included and we ask both readersmore » and authors to understand that a book such as this simply cannot {open_quotes}contain everything.{close_quotes} Our objective in Chapter 1 is to describe the basic structure of fuzzy sets theory as it applies to the major problems encountered in the design of a pattern recognition system.« less

812 citations

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01 Mar 1999

TL;DR: This volume provides a collection of twenty articles containing new material and describing the basic concepts and characterizing features of rough set theory and its integration with fuzzy set theory, for developing an efficient soft computing strategy of machine learning.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
This volume provides a collection of twenty articles containing new material and describing the basic concepts and characterizing features of rough set theory and its integration with fuzzy set theory, for developing an efficient soft computing strategy of machine learning. Written by leading experts from all over the world, the contributions demonstrate how rough-fuzzy hybridization can be made in various ways to provide flexible information processing capabilities for handling different real-life, ambiguous decision-making problems. This volume provides a balanced mix of theory and application.

691 citations

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08 Sep 2000TL;DR: This book presents dozens of algorithms and implementation examples, all in pseudo-code and suitable for use in real-world, large-scale data mining projects, and provides a comprehensive, practical look at the concepts and techniques you need to get the most out of real business data.

Abstract: The increasing volume of data in modern business and science calls for more complex and sophisticated tools. Although advances in data mining technology have made extensive data collection much easier, it's still always evolving and there is a constant need for new techniques and tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge. Since the previous edition's publication, great advances have been made in the field of data mining. Not only does the third of edition of Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques continue the tradition of equipping you with an understanding and application of the theory and practice of discovering patterns hidden in large data sets, it also focuses on new, important topics in the field: data warehouses and data cube technology, mining stream, mining social networks, and mining spatial, multimedia and other complex data. Each chapter is a stand-alone guide to a critical topic, presenting proven algorithms and sound implementations ready to be used directly or with strategic modification against live data. This is the resource you need if you want to apply today's most powerful data mining techniques to meet real business challenges. * Presents dozens of algorithms and implementation examples, all in pseudo-code and suitable for use in real-world, large-scale data mining projects. * Addresses advanced topics such as mining object-relational databases, spatial databases, multimedia databases, time-series databases, text databases, the World Wide Web, and applications in several fields. *Provides a comprehensive, practical look at the concepts and techniques you need to get the most out of real business data

23,600 citations

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TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.

Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

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TL;DR: The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or her own research.

Abstract: I have developed "tennis elbow" from lugging this book around the past four weeks, but it is worth the pain, the effort, and the aspirin. It is also worth the (relatively speaking) bargain price. Including appendixes, this book contains 894 pages of text. The entire panorama of the neural sciences is surveyed and examined, and it is comprehensive in its scope, from genomes to social behaviors. The editors explicitly state that the book is designed as "an introductory text for students of biology, behavior, and medicine," but it is hard to imagine any audience, interested in any fragment of neuroscience at any level of sophistication, that would not enjoy this book. The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or

7,563 citations

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TL;DR: A review of recent as well as classic image registration methods to provide a comprehensive reference source for the researchers involved in image registration, regardless of particular application areas.

6,842 citations