Bio: Sudeepto Bhattacharya is an academic researcher from Shiv Nadar University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Population & Gene regulatory network. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 12 publication(s) receiving 62 citation(s).
TL;DR: Meta-analysis and co-expression network comparison of drought and cold stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana and gene ontology-based enrichment analysis identified shared biological processes and molecular mechanisms such as—‘photosynthesis’, ‘respiratory burst’ and ‘response to hormone’ which were affected under cold and drought stress.
Abstract: Multiple environmental stresses adversely affect plant growth and development. Plants under multiple stress condition trigger cascade of signals and show response unique to specific stress as well as shared responses, common to individual stresses. Here, we aim to identify common and unique genetic components during stress response mechanisms liable for cross-talk between stresses. Although drought and cold stress have been widely studied, insignificant information is available about how their combination affects plants. To that end, we performed meta-analysis and co-expression network comparison of drought and cold stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana by analyzing 390 microarray samples belonging to 29 microarray studies. We observed 6120 and 7079 DEGs (differentially expressed genes) under drought and cold stress respectively, using Rank Product methodology. Statistically, 28% (2890) DEGs were found to be common in both the stresses (i.e.; drought and cold stress) with most of them having similar expression pattern. Further, gene ontology-based enrichment analysis have identified shared biological processes and molecular mechanisms such as—‘photosynthesis’, ‘respiratory burst’, ‘response to hormone’, ‘signal transduction’, ‘metabolic process’, ‘response to water deprivation’, which were affected under cold and drought stress. Forty three transcription factor families were found to be expressed under both the stress conditions. Primarily, WRKY, NAC, MYB, AP2/ERF and bZIP transcription factor family genes were highly enriched in all genes sets and were found to regulate 56% of common genes expressed in drought and cold stress. Gene co-expression network analysis by WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) revealed 21 and 16 highly inter-correlated gene modules with specific expression profiles under drought and cold stress respectively. Detection and analysis of gene modules shared between two stresses revealed the presence of four consensus gene modules.
10 Jun 2016-Ecological Modelling
TL;DR: In this article, a graph theoretic network approach has been used to model the potential connectivity of the natural areas in Darjeeling Himalayas which provide connectivity to the invasive species Maling bamboo ( Yushania maling ).
Abstract: Graph theoretic network approach has been used to model the potential connectivity of the natural areas in Darjeeling Himalayas which provide connectivity to the invasive species Maling bamboo ( Yushania maling ). Centrality indices are a tool for quantifying the intuitive notion of relative importance of the elements of a graph. The probability of connectivity (PC) index which takes into account the impact of functional connectivity among the patches like seed dispersal potential was used to identify the natural patches which can act as stepping stone for the spread of the invasive species. The potential niche map of Maling bamboo modelled using species niche model, MaxEnt have been used as the potential areas of its spread from the regions of its current infestations. An open source software (Confer) has been used to model the various graph indices in the spatial domain. Using areas weighted nodes (forest patches) the extent of connectivity among the various patches in the Darjeeling Himalayas have been computed to identify the critical patches responsible for the spread of Maling bamboo. It has been observed that 3 critical forest patches in the Darjeeling Himalaya Singalilla NP in the west, Senchal WLS in the central region and Neora Valley NP are the key vertices for the spread of Maling bamboo.
TL;DR: A stress-specific TF-miRNA-gene network was built for Arabidopsis under drought, cold, salt and waterlogging stress using data from reliable publically available databases; and transcriptome and degradome sequence data analysis by meta-analysis approach elucidated significantly dense, scale-free, small world and hierarchical backbone of interactions.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) are the largest families of trans-acting gene regulatory species, which are pivotal players in a complex regulatory network. Recently, extensive research on miRNAs and TFs in agriculture has identified these trans-acting regulatory species, as an effective tool for engineering new crop cultivars to increase yield and quality as well tolerance to environmental stresses but our knowledge of regulatory network is still not sufficient to decipher the exact mechanism. In the current work, stress-specific TF-miRNA-gene network was built for Arabidopsis under drought, cold, salt and waterlogging stress using data from reliable publically available databases; and transcriptome and degradome sequence data analysis by meta-analysis approach. Further network analysis elucidated significantly dense, scale-free, small world and hierarchical backbone of interactions. The various centrality measures highlighted several genes/TF/miRNAs as potential targets for tolerant variety cultivation. This comprehensive regulatory information will accelerate the advancement of current understanding on stress specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism and has promising utilizations for experimental biologist who are intended to improve plant crop performance under multiple Abiotic stress environments.
TL;DR: The effects of sophisticated communications and information-sharing between bacterial colonies are found to be a vital determinant for bacterial growth, which is manifested in the Petri dish as complex spatial patterns, often at fractal scales.
Abstract: In this paper, we use game theory to describe the emergence of self-organization and consequent pattern formation through communicative cooperation in Bacillus subtilis colonies. The emergence of cooperative regime is modelled as an n-player Assurance game, with the bacterial colonies as individual players. The game is played iteratively through cooperative communication, and mediated by exchange of information about the local environment between the different bacterial colonies comprising the system. The iteration causes the interactive system to grow and produce beautiful complex spatial patterns signaling the emergence of self-organization. In laboratory, we have the bacterial growth environment mimicked in Petri dish, where chemical stress is introduced in a three- fold manner: through modification of nutrition and substrate amounts and introducing an antibiotic in the system. In our model, bacteria colonies, treated asindividual players, interact within the environment and grow according to a set of rules. The rules capture the biotic processes that allow bacteria to grow in the hostile environment, and cope with the stress. We find the effects of sophisticated communications and information-sharing between bacterial colonies to be a vital determinant for bacterial growth, which is manifested in the Petri dish as complex spatial patterns, often at fractal scales. As a formal description of the above game, we model the emergence of this cooperative behaviour as finite deterministic automata, whose transition function is informed by the Assurance game pay-off. Consequently, the exercise allows us to derive a grammar that provides the rules for describing the bacterial interactions leading to the emergence of the spatial structures.
01 Mar 2019-Ecological Informatics
TL;DR: Game theory and graph theory are used to model and design a wildlife corridor in the Central India – Eastern Ghats landscape complex, with tiger as the focal species and a cost matrix is constructed to indicate the cost incurred by the tiger for passage between the habitat patches in the landscape.
Abstract: Wildlife habitat corridors are components of landscapes, which facilitate the movement of organisms and processes between areas of intact habitat, and thus provide landscape corridor as well as serve as an ideal component to study and understand physiological ecology. Corridors are thus regions within a given landscape that generally comprise native vegetation, and connect otherwise fragmented, disconnected, non-contiguous wildlife habitat patches in the landscape. The purpose of designing corridors as a conservation strategy is primarily to counter, and to the extent possible, mitigate the impacts of habitat fragmentation and loss on the biodiversity of the landscape, as well as support continuance of land use for essential local and global economic activities in the region of reference. In this paper, we use game theory and graph theory to model and design a wildlife corridor in the Central India – Eastern Ghats landscape complex, with tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as the focal species. We construct a graph using the habitat patches supporting wild tiger populations in the landscape complex as vertices and the possible paths between these vertices as edges. A cost matrix is constructed to indicate the cost incurred by the tiger for passage between the habitat patches in the landscape (based on Shelford's Law of Tolerance), by modelling a two-person Prisoner's Dilemma game. A minimum spanning tree is then obtained by employing Kruskal's algorithm, which would suggest a feasible tiger corridor network for the tiger population within the landscape complex. Additionally, analysis of the graph is done using various centrality measures, in order to identify and focus on potentially important habitat patches, and their potential community structure. Correlation analysis is performed on the centrality indices to draw out interesting trends in the network.
22 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems are reviewed, including those related to the WWW.
Abstract: We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.
30 Apr 1984
TL;DR: A review of the literature on optimal foraging can be found in this article, with a focus on the theoretical developments and the data that permit tests of the predictions, and the authors conclude that the simple models so far formulated are supported by available data and that they are optimistic about the value both now and in the future.
Abstract: Beginning with Emlen (1966) and MacArthur and Pianka (1966) and extending through the last ten years, several authors have sought to predict the foraging behavior of animals by means of mathematical models. These models are very similar,in that they all assume that the fitness of a foraging animal is a function of the efficiency of foraging measured in terms of some "currency" (Schoener, 1971) -usually energy- and that natural selection has resulted in animals that forage so as to maximize this fitness. As a result of these similarities, the models have become known as "optimal foraging models"; and the theory that embodies them, "optimal foraging theory." The situations to which optimal foraging theory has been applied, with the exception of a few recent studies, can be divided into the following four categories: (1) choice by an animal of which food types to eat (i.e., optimal diet); (2) choice of which patch type to feed in (i.e., optimal patch choice); (3) optimal allocation of time to different patches; and (4) optimal patterns and speed of movements. In this review we discuss each of these categories separately, dealing with both the theoretical developments and the data that permit tests of the predictions. The review is selective in the sense that we emphasize studies that either develop testable predictions or that attempt to test predictions in a precise quantitative manner. We also discuss what we see to be some of the future developments in the area of optimal foraging theory and how this theory can be related to other areas of biology. Our general conclusion is that the simple models so far formulated are supported are supported reasonably well by available data and that we are optimistic about the value both now and in the future of optimal foraging theory. We argue, however, that these simple models will requre much modification, espicially to deal with situations that either cannot easily be put into one or another of the above four categories or entail currencies more complicated that just energy.
01 Oct 2017-Ecological Indicators
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used Land Change Modeller (LCM)-Markov Chain models to simulate urban expansion in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Metro Manila and Jakarta), all experiencing rapid urban expansion, and identify which are the main drivers, including spatial planning, in the resulting spatial patterns.
Abstract: Rapid urban expansion has had a significant impact on green space structure. A wide variety of modelling approaches have been tested to simulate urban expansion; however, the effectiveness of simulations of the spatial structure of urban expansion remains unexplored. This study aims to model and predict urban expansion in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Metro Manila and Jakarta), all experiencing rapid urban expansion, and to identify which are the main drivers, including spatial planning, in the resulting spatial patterns. Land Change Modeller (LCM)-Markov Chain models were used, parameterised on changes observed between 1988/1989 and 1999 and verified with the urban form observed for 2014. These models were then used to simulate urban expansion for the year 2030. The spatial structure of the simulated 2030 land use was then compared with the 2030 master plan for each city using spatial metrics. LCM-Markov Chain models proved to be a suitable method for simulating the development of future land use. There were also important differences in the projected spatial structure for 2030 when compared to the planned development in each city; substantive differences in the size, density, distance, shape and spatial pattern. Evidence suggests that these spatial patterns are influenced by the forms of rapid urban expansion experienced in these cities and respective master planning policies of the municipalities of the cities. The use of integrated simulation modelling and landscape ecology analytics supplies significant insights into the evolution of the spatial structure of urban expansion and identifies constraints and informs intervention for spatial planning and policies in cities.
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used individual-based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape, and found that the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint.
Abstract: Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (F ST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status to corridors, use smart green infrastructure to mitigate development impacts, and restore habitats where connectivity has been lost.
01 Jan 1982