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Vytenis Babrauskas

Bio: Vytenis Babrauskas is an academic researcher from John Jay College of Criminal Justice. The author has contributed to research in topics: Poison control & Cone calorimeter. The author has an hindex of 39, co-authored 129 publications receiving 6063 citations. Previous affiliations of Vytenis Babrauskas include University of California, San Diego & National Institute of Standards and Technology.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explain why heat release rate is, in fact, the single most important variable in characterizing the "flammability" of products and their consequent fire hazard.

781 citations

01 Nov 1982
TL;DR: In this paper, a new bench-scale rate of heat release calorimeter utilizing the oxygen consumption principle has been developed for use in fire testing and research, which is capable of higher accuracy than existing instruments and yet to be simple to operate and moderate in construction cost.
Abstract: A new bench-scale rate of heat release calorimeter utilizing the oxygen consumption principle has been developed for use in fire testing and research. Specimens may be of uniform or composite construction and may be tested in a horizontal, face-up orientation, or, for those which do not melt, in a vertical orientation. An external irradiance of zero to over 100 kW m−2 may be imposed by means of a temperature-controlled radiant heater. The rate of heat release is determined by measuring combustion product gas flow and oxygen depletion, while the mass loss is also recorded simultaneously. The instrument has been designed to be capable of higher accuracy than existing instruments and yet to be simple to operate and moderate in construction cost. The instrument is thermed a ‘cone calorimeter’ because of the geometric arrangement of the electric heater.

464 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new bench-scale rate of heat release calorimeter utilizing the oxygen consumption principle has been developed for use in fire testing and research, which is capable of higher accuracy than existing instruments and yet to be simple to operate and moderate in construction cost.
Abstract: A new bench-scale rate of heat release calorimeter utilizing the oxygen consumption principle has been developed for use in fire testing and research. Specimens may be of uniform or composite construction and may be tested in a horizontal, face-up orientation, or, for those which do not melt, in a vertical orientation. An external irradiance of zero to over 100 kW m−2 may be imposed by means of a temperature-controlled radiant heater. The rate of heat release is determined by measuring combustion product gas flow and oxygen depletion, while the mass loss is also recorded simultaneously. The instrument has been designed to be capable of higher accuracy than existing instruments and yet to be simple to operate and moderate in construction cost. The instrument is thermed a ‘cone calorimeter’ because of the geometric arrangement of the electric heater.

454 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data for estimating the burning rate and heat output of large pool fires (diameter ≳ 0.2 m) are compiled and computational equations presented and a large scatter is noted.
Abstract: Data for estimating the burning rate and heat output of large pool fires (diameter ≳ 0.2 m) are compiled and computational equations presented. Since a large scatter in the reported data is noted, attention is also focused on areas where further research is most needed in order to improve predictability.

404 citations

Book
31 Dec 1990
TL;DR: Babrauskas and Grayson as mentioned in this paper, Heat Release in Fires, Interscience Communications Ltd, London (1992; reprinted 2009). xii, 623 pages, illustrated, hardbound.
Abstract: V. Babrauskas and S. J. Grayson, eds., Heat Release in Fires, Interscience Communications Ltd, London (1992; reprinted 2009). xii, 623 pages, illustrated, hardbound. ISBN: 978-0-9556548-4-8. The original book publisher was Elsevier Applied Science. The current reprint is from Interscience Communications Ltd.: ordering information. List price: £95 plus p+p (UK £4.50, Europe £8.00, Rest of world £14.50). Few booksellers carry this book (especially charging no more than the list price!), thus it is recommended that it be ordered directly from the publishers.

390 citations


Cited by
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Reference EntryDOI
31 Oct 2001
TL;DR: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as mentioned in this paper is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards for testing and materials, and is a member of IEEE 802.11.
Abstract: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards.

3,792 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an overview of the research to date on the use of clays, dispersed at the nanometer level, in polymers for improving thermal stability and flammability is presented.

1,623 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the mechanism of flammability reduction of polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride and polystyrene−layered-silicate nanocomposites using montmorillonite and fluorohectorite was investigated.
Abstract: Our continuing study of the mechanism of flammability reduction of polymer−layered-silicate nanocomposites has yielded results for polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride and polystyrene−layered-silicate nanocomposites using montmorillonite and fluorohectorite. Cone calorimetry was used to measure the heat release rate and other flammability properties of the nanocomposites, under well-controlled combustion conditions. Both the polymer−layered-silicate nanocomposites and the combustion residues were studied by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. We have found evidence for a common mechanism of flammability reduction. We also found that the type of layered silicate, nanodispersion, and processing degradation have an influence on the flammability reduction.

1,466 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements, and discuss the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone.
Abstract: There is little consensus within the fire science community on interpretation of cone calorimeter data, but there is a significant need to screen new flammability modified materials using the cone calorimeter. This article is the result of several discussions aiming to provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements. This guidance is essentially empirical, and is not intended to replace the comprehensive scientific studies that already exist. The guidance discusses the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone calorimeter. The fire properties measured in the cone calorimeter are discussed, including heat release rate and its peak, the mass loss and char yield, effective heat of combustion and combustion efficiency, time to ignition and CO and smoke production together with deduced quantities such as FIGRA and MARHE. Special comments are made on the use of the cone calorimeter relating to sample thickness, textiles, foams and intumescent materials, and the distance of the cone heater from the sample surface. Finally, the relationship between cone calorimetry data and other tests is discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1,116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the recent developments concerning the use of layered silicates (clay) for designing polymer nanocomposites endowed with enhanced flame retardancy is presented.

942 citations