Author

# Wing Kam Liu

Other affiliations: King Abdulaziz University, Sungkyunkwan University, Keane ...read more

Bio: Wing Kam Liu is an academic researcher from Northwestern University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Finite element method & Mixed finite element method. The author has an hindex of 95, co-authored 614 publications receiving 40345 citations. Previous affiliations of Wing Kam Liu include King Abdulaziz University & Sungkyunkwan University.

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12 Sep 2000

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a list of boxes for Lagrangian and Eulerian Finite Elements in One Dimension (LDF) in one dimension, including Beams and Shells.

Abstract: Preface. List of Boxes. Introduction. Lagrangian and Eulerian Finite Elements in One Dimension. Continuum Mechanics. Lagrangian Meshes. Constitutive Models Solution Methods and Stability. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Formulations. Element Technology. Beams and Shells. Contact--Impact. Appendix 1: Voigt Notation. Appendix 2: Norms. Appendix 3: Element Shape Functions. Glossary. References. Index.

3,928 citations

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TL;DR: A new continuous reproducing kernel interpolation function which explores the attractive features of the flexible time-frequency and space-wave number localization of a window function is developed and is called the reproducingkernel particle method (RKPM).

Abstract: A new continuous reproducing kernel interpolation function which explores the attractive features of the flexible time-frequency and space-wave number localization of a window function is developed. This method is motivated by the theory of wavelets and also has the desirable attributes of the recently proposed smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods, moving least squares methods (MLSM), diffuse element methods (DEM) and element-free Galerkin methods (EFGM). The proposed method maintains the advantages of the free Lagrange or SPH methods; however, because of the addition of a correction function, it gives much more accurate results. Therefore it is called the reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM). In computer implementation RKPM is shown to be more efficient than DEM and EFGM. Moreover, if the window function is C∞, the solution and its derivatives are also C∞ in the entire domain. Theoretical analysis and numerical experiments on the 1D diffusion equation reveal the stability conditions and the effect of the dilation parameter on the unusually high convergence rates of the proposed method. Two-dimensional examples of advection-diffusion equations and compressible Euler equations are also presented together with 2D multiple-scale decompositions.

2,682 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a finite element formulation for incompressible viscous flows in an arbitrarily mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian description is given for modeling the fluid subdomain of many fluid-solid interaction, and free surface problems.

1,494 citations

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TL;DR: The theoretical predictions and the experimental techniques that are most often used for the challenging tasks of visualizing and manipulating these tiny structures are reviewed and the computational approaches taken, including ab initio quantum mechanical simulations, classical molecular dynamics, and continuum models are outlined.

Abstract: Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes, it was realized that the theoretically predicted mechanical properties of these interesting structures–including high strength, high stiffness, low density and structural perfection–could make them ideal for a wealth of technological applications. The experimental verification, and in some cases refutation, of these predictions, along with a number of computer simulation methods applied to their modeling, has led over the past decade to an improved but by no means complete understanding of the mechanics of carbon nanotubes. We review the theoretical predictions and discuss the experimental techniques that are most often used for the challenging tasks of visualizing and manipulating these tiny structures. We also outline the computational approaches that have been taken, including ab initio quantum mechanical simulations, classical molecular dynamics, and continuum models. The development of multiscale and multiphysics models and simulation tools naturally arises as a result of the link between basic scientific research and engineering application; while this issue is still under intensive study, we present here some of the approaches to this topic. Our concentration throughout is on the exploration of mechanical properties such as Young’s modulus, bending stiffness, buckling criteria, and tensile and compressive strengths. Finally, we discuss several examples of exciting applications that take advantage of these properties, including nanoropes, filled nanotubes, nanoelectromechanical systems, nanosensors, and nanotube-reinforced polymers. This review article cites 349 references. @DOI: 10.1115/1.1490129#

1,097 citations

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TL;DR: A survey of mesh-free and particle methods and their applications in applied mechanics can be found in this article, where the emphasis is placed on simulations of finite deformations, fracture, strain localization of solids; incompressible as well as compressible flows; and applications of multiscale methods and nano-scale mechanics.

Abstract: Recent developments of meshfree and particle methods and their applications in applied mechanics are surveyed. Three major methodologies have been reviewed. First, smoothed particle hydrodynamics ~SPH! is discussed as a representative of a non-local kernel, strong form collocation approach. Second, mesh-free Galerkin methods, which have been an active research area in recent years, are reviewed. Third, some applications of molecular dynamics ~MD! in applied mechanics are discussed. The emphases of this survey are placed on simulations of finite deformations, fracture, strain localization of solids; incompressible as well as compressible flows; and applications of multiscale methods and nano-scale mechanics. This review article includes 397 references. @DOI: 10.1115/1.1431547#

833 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

01 May 1993

TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.

Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.

Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

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9,185 citations

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AeroVironment

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, a new finite element formulation for convection dominated flows is developed, based on the streamline upwind concept, which provides an accurate multidimensional generalization of optimal one-dimensional upwind schemes.

5,157 citations