Journal•ISSN: 0003-6900

# Applied Mechanics Reviews

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

About: Applied Mechanics Reviews is an academic journal published by American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Finite element method & Nonlinear system. It has an ISSN identifier of 0003-6900. Over the lifetime, 1275 publications have been published receiving 106539 citations. The journal is also known as: Appl. Mech. Rev..

Topics: Finite element method, Nonlinear system, Turbulence, Fracture mechanics, Boundary value problem

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TL;DR: The Models-3 CMAQ system as mentioned in this paper is a community multiscale air quality modeling system that includes a meteorological modeling system for the description of atmospheric states and motions, emission models for man-made and natural emissions that are injected into the atmosphere, and a chemistry-transport modelling system for simulation of the chemical transformation and fate.

Abstract: This article describes the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components entering into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This system has been designed to approach air quality as a whole by including state-ofthe-science capabilities for modeling multiple air quality issues, including tropospheric ozone, fine particles, acid deposition, and visibility degradation. CMAQ was also designed to have multiscale capabilities so that separate models were not needed for urban and regional scale air quality modeling. By making CMAQ a modeling system that addresses multiple pollutants and different spatial scales, it has a “one-atmosphere” perspective that combines the efforts of the scientific community. To implement multiscale capabilities in CMAQ, several issues (such as scalable atmospheric dynamics and generalized coordinates), which depend on the desired model resolution, are addressed. A set of governing equations for compressible nonhydrostatic atmospheres is available to better resolve atmospheric dynamics at smaller scales. Because CMAQ is designed to handle scale-dependent meteorological formulations and a large amount of flexibility, its governing equations are expressed in a generalized coordinate system. This approach ensures consistency between CMAQ and the meteorological modeling system. The generalized coordinate system determines the necessary grid and coordinate transformations, and it can accommodate various vertical coordinates and map projections. The CMAQ modeling system simulates various chemical and physical processes that are thought to be important for understanding atmospheric trace gas transformations and distributions. The modeling system contains three types of modeling components (Models-3): a meteorological modeling system for the description of atmospheric states and motions, emission models for man-made and natural emissions that are injected into the atmosphere, and a chemistry-transport modeling system for simulation of the chemical transformation and fate. The chemical transport model includes the following process modules: horizontal advection, vertical advection, mass conservation adjustments for advection processes, horizontal diffusion, vertical diffusion, gas-phase chemical reactions and solvers, photolytic rate computation, aqueous-phase reactions and cloud mixing, aerosol dynamics, size distributions and chemistry, plume chemistry effects, and gas and aerosol deposition velocity estimation. This paper describes the Models-3 CMAQ system, its governing equations, important science algorithms, and a few application examples. This review article cites 114 references. DOI: 10.1115/1.2128636

1,993 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of the virtual crack closure technique is presented, the approach used is discussed, the history summarized, and insight into its applications provided.

Abstract: : An overview of the virtual crack closure technique is presented. The approach used is discussed, the history summarized, and insight into its applications provided. Equations for two-dimensional quadrilateral elements with linear and quadratic shape functions are given. Formula for applying the technique in conjuction with three-dimensional solid elements as well as plate/shell elements are also provided. Necessary modifications for the use of the method with geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis and corrections required for elements at the crack tip with different lengths and widths are discussed. The problems associated with cracks or delaminations propagating between different materials are mentioned briefly, as well as a strategy to minimize these problems. Due to an increased interest in using a fracture mechanics based approach to assess the damage tolerance of composite structures in the design phase and during certification, the engineering problems selected as examples and given as references focus on the application of the technique to components made of composite materials.

1,354 citations

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TL;DR: This book discusses Classical and Modern Control Optimization Optimal Control Historical Tour, Variational Calculus for Discrete-Time Systems, and more.

Abstract: INTRODUCTION Classical and Modern Control Optimization Optimal Control Historical Tour About This Book Chapter Overview Problems CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS AND OPTIMAL CONTROL Basic Concepts Optimum of a Function and a Functional The Basic Variational Problem The Second Variation Extrema of Functions with Conditions Extrema of Functionals with Conditions Variational Approach to Optimal Systems Summary of Variational Approach Problems LINEAR QUADRATIC OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS I Problem Formulation Finite-Time Linear Quadratic Regulator Analytical Solution to the Matrix Differential Riccati Equation Infinite-Time LQR System I Infinite-Time LQR System II Problems LINEAR QUADRATIC OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS II Linear Quadratic Tracking System: Finite-Time Case LQT System: Infinite-Time Case Fixed-End-Point Regulator System Frequency-Domain Interpretation Problems DISCRETE-TIME OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS Variational Calculus for Discrete-Time Systems Discrete-Time Optimal Control Systems Discrete-Time Linear State Regulator Systems Steady-State Regulator System Discrete-Time Linear Quadratic Tracking System Frequency-Domain Interpretation Problems PONTRYAGIN MINIMUM PRINCIPLE Constrained Systems Pontryagin Minimum Principle Dynamic Programming The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Equation LQR System using H-J-B Equation CONSTRAINED OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS Constrained Optimal Control TOC of a Double Integral System Fuel-Optimal Control Systems Minimum Fuel System: LTI System Energy-Optimal Control Systems Optimal Control Systems with State Constraints Problems APPENDICES Vectors and Matrices State Space Analysis MATLAB Files REFERENCES INDEX

1,259 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a method for customizing a page view by dragging and re-positioning the boxes below the boxes. But this method is limited to a single page view.

Abstract: Related Content Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below. Related Journal Articles

1,229 citations

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TL;DR: The differential quadrature method (DQM) as discussed by the authors is a numerical solution technique for initial and/or boundary problems, which was developed by the late Richard Bellman and his associates in the early 70s.

Abstract: The differential quadrature method is a numerical solution technique for initial and/or boundary problems. It was developed by the late Richard Bellman and his associates in the early 70s and, since then, the technique has been successfully employed in a variety of problems in engineering and physical sciences. The method has been projected by its proponents as a potential alternative to the conventional numerical solution techniques such as the finite difference and finite element methods. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the differential quadrature method, which should be of general interest to the computational mechanics community.

1,217 citations