About: Toxicology reports is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Medicine & Toxicity. It has an ISSN identifier of 2214-7500. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 1523 publications have been published receiving 26265 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the effects of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) alone and 14 of its formulations as a model for pesticides and found that the toxic effects and endocrine disrupting properties of the formulations were mostly due to the formulants and not to G.
Abstract: The major pesticides of the world are glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), and their toxicity is highly debated. To understand their mode of action, the comparative herbicidal and toxicological effects of glyphosate (G) alone and 14 of its formulations were studied in this work, as a model for pesticides. GBH are mixtures of water, with commonly 36-48% G claimed as the active principle. As with other pesticides, 10-20% of GBH consist of chemical formulants. We previously identified these by mass spectrometry and found them to be mainly families of petroleum-based oxidized molecules, such as POEA, and other contaminants. We exposed plants and human cells to the components of formulations, both mixed and separately, and measured toxicity and human cellular endocrine disruption below the direct toxicity experimentally measured threshold. G was only slightly toxic on plants at the recommended dilutions in agriculture, in contrast with the general belief. In the short term, the strong herbicidal and toxic properties of its formulations were exerted by the POEA formulant family alone. The toxic effects and endocrine disrupting properties of the formulations were mostly due to the formulants and not to G. In this work, we also identified by mass spectrometry the heavy metals arsenic, chromium, cobalt, lead and nickel, which are known to be toxic and endocrine disruptors, as contaminants in 22 pesticides, including 11 G-based ones. This could also explain some of the adverse effects of the pesticides. In in vivo chronic regulatory experiments that are used to establish the acceptable daily intakes of pesticides, G or other declared active ingredients in pesticides are assessed alone, without the formulants. Considering these new data, this assessment method appears insufficient to ensure safety. These results, taken together, shed a new light on the toxicity of these major herbicides and of pesticides in general.
TL;DR: In this paper, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb) content were determined in freshwater edible fishes Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus and Pelteobagrus fluvidraco, which were caught from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of China.
Abstract: In the present study, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb) content were determined in freshwater edible fishes Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus and Pelteobagrus fluvidraco, which were caught from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of China. The results showed that the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb content in the edible parts of the two fish species were much lower than Chinese Food Health Criterion (1994). However, the results showed marked differences in the four analyzed metal content between the two species and different tissues as well as significant variations. Pb content were the highest in the liver of fishes, Cd contents were almost the same in all organs of fishes, Cr contents mainly enriched in the kidney and liver, Cu contents were the highest in gills, However, the total metal bioaccumulation were greatest in the liver, gills and the lowest in the muscle. Although the total accumulations were highest in P. fluvidraco compare then C.carpio. This investigation indicated that fish products in Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake were still safe for human consumption, but the amount consumed should be controlled under the Chinese Food Health Criterion to avoid excessive intake of Pb. Further, this is the first report on seasonal distribution of heavy metals and proximate compositions of commercialized important edible fishes from Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the various types of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their production, and antioxidant defense mechanisms for ROS suppression, and describe the different types of ROS and their defense mechanisms.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) typically produce in algae and act as secondary messengers in numerous cellular processes. Under abiotic stresses, the balance between production and suppression of ROS disappears and causes increase of ROS. Increasing excessive ROS can cause damage to various cellular components comprising cell membranes, proteins and lipids. Algae have an antioxidant defense system to overcome on oxidative damage. Antioxidant defense mechanisms are of two types, namely enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The enzymatic antioxidants include superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The non-enzymatic antioxidants include carotenoids, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. In this review, we describe the various types of ROS and their production, and antioxidant defense mechanisms for ROS suppression.
TL;DR: It seems that immune dysregulation may be implicated in the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19, a pandemic that has evolved from the emergence of a new coronav virus strain, acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in China.
Abstract: As of 20 April, almost 1.7 million people globally have been diagnosed with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic that has evolved from the emergence of a new coronavirus strain, acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in China. More than 170,000 deaths have been reported, while there are certainly many more cases of milder disease that have not been diagnosed and officially confirmed due to limited testing capacity in most countries. The pandemic is a global emergency due to the rapid transmission of the disease and the potential to overwhelm the healthcare systems, and is expected to have considerable economic and health impacts. Contributing factors and their possible role in the relatively high infection, death rates between countries and origin have recently been studied [1,2]. This new outbreak has been additionally evaluated for current knowledge on coronaviruses based on a short history to epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation of the disease, as well as treatment and prevention strategies . The search for potential protective and therapeutic antiviral strategies is of particular and urgent concern . While in most cases, especially in young people without any comorbidities, the disease is expected to be relatively mild, there is a substantial proportion of patients who develop complications and need intensive care-unit support and mechanical ventilation. In one case series of 1099 patients in China , 6.1 % of cases suffered from the primary composite end-point of admission to an intensive care unit, use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Patients with severe disease typically present with dyspnea and hypoxemia shortly after disease initiation, and may quickly progress to respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure . Predictors of adverse outcomes include elevated levels of inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines. A study of 150 COVID-19 cases reported that elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and IL-6 were associated with death . IL-6, an important pro-inflammatory cytokine, was elevated in fatal cases of COVID-19 in another study of 191 patients . Another study of 452 patients reported that those with severe disease showed lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, low levels of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, and elevated levels of infection-related biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines . Pathological examination of a case in China revealed bilateral diffuse alveolar damage, desquamation of pneumocytes, hyaline membrane formation and interstitial mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates . Flow cytometry of peripheral blood revealed reduced levels of CD4+ and CD8 + T cells, which however were hyper-activated, and elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory CCR6+ Th17 in CD4 + T cells. Such findings are hallmarks of ARDS and resemble features observed in SARS and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome [11,12]. Systemic vasculitis was also observed . Therefore, it seems that immune dysregulation may be implicated in the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19.
TL;DR: This review advocates revisiting the current safety and regulation of specific sunscreens and investing in alternative UV protection technologies, including zinc oxide and titanium dioxide.
Abstract: Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV) radiation Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and chemical filters absorb those rays Alongside the evidence for increasing levels of these agents in the environment, which leads to indirect exposure of wildlife and humans, recent studies suggest a toxicological nature for some of these agents Reviews on the role of these agents in developmental and endocrine impairments (both pathology and related mechanisms) are based on both animal and human studies, yet information regarding the potential neurotoxicity of these agents is scant In this review, data regarding the neurotoxicity of several organic filters: octyl methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3 and -4, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 3-benzylidene camphor and octocrylene, and two allowed inorganic filters: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, is presented and discussed Taken together, this review advocates revisiting the current safety and regulation of specific sunscreens and investing in alternative UV protection technologies