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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Optimum Coordination of Overcurrent Relays Using Dual Simplex and Genetic Algorithms

01 Nov 2015-pp 1544-1547
TL;DR: This paper implements Dual Simplex and Genetic Algorithms (GA) on a radial network and identifies the time multiplier setting (TMS) of the relay that facilitates in achieving suitable OC relay coordination of the network.
Abstract: Protection system includes a series of devices whose main purpose is to protect people and primary electric power equipment from the effects of faults. Fault currents cause damage to equipment and are also hazardous to personnel. Thus, there should be a primary and a backup system with proper time grading between systems, i.e. Tripping time should be maximum for the point farthest from the fault location. Over current (OC) relays are used as backup protection against these faults. The coordination time interval must be maintained among relays during faults. Various algorithms are used to optimize the time of operation of these OC relays. This paper implements Dual Simplex and Genetic Algorithms (GA) on a radial network and identifies the time multiplier setting (TMS) of the relay. This facilitates in achieving suitable OC relay coordination of the network.
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: A simple but powerful optimization method for coordination of over current (OC) relays is presented in this paper, the main contribution of this paper is application of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method for calculating optimum values of time multiplier setting (TMS) and plug setting (PS) of OCRs.
Abstract: A simple but powerful optimization method for coordination of over current (OC) relays is presented in this paper. For distribution system protection as well as backup protection in transmission system, overcurrent relay is most widely used. Maloperation of relays may occur if primary and backup relays are not properly coordinated. And therefore relay coordination become important part of power system protection. The main contribution of this paper is application of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method for calculating optimum values of time multiplier setting (TMS) and plug setting (PS) of OCRs. The proposed algorithm was successfully tested on different systems. Comparison of results with genetic algorithm is also presented in this paper. From results it is found that SQP method is superior as compared to GA technique.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new adaptive commissioning methodology for arc flash mitigation in steel manufacturer users considering the Tap-to-Tap varying current consumption is proposed, which is achieved through adaptative protection settings computed to reduce the total clearing time of relays adding the restriction of the incident energy.
Abstract: This article proposes a new adaptive commissioning methodology for arc flash mitigation in steel manufacturer users considering the Tap-to-Tap varying current consumption. This process is achieved through adaptative protection settings computed to reduce the total clearing time of relays adding the restriction of the incident energy. The proposed methodology carries out the detection of abrupt changes in current consumption to detect Tap-to-Tap change in operation stages of electric arc furnaces. The application of this methodology is performed on a steel manufacturer user and shows the reduction of the incident energy values according to Tap-to-Tap operation cycle.

6 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2018
TL;DR: IoT is used to solve the issues of microgrid reconfiguration occurring due to faults, changing energy usage patterns and inclusion and removal of DERs by using suitable processor based technology.
Abstract: Microgrids comprise low voltage distribution systems with distributed energy resources (DER) and controllable loads which can operate connected to the medium voltage grid or islanded in a controlled and coordinated way [1]. Microgrids are controlled units which report their current state to a central control unit called Central Protection Centre (CPC) thus increasing reliability of the system. This feature also increases the controllability, security and ease of power flow. By connecting load centers to a microgrid, uninterrupted power is supplied to households and industries with reduction in energy theft, interruptions and loss in energy. However the challenge lies in automating the entire process of monitoring, protection and control of all the grid parameters. This becomes more critical with inclusion of DERs as they are inconsistent sources of energy. In this paper the concepts of Internet of Things(IoT) is used to solve the issues of microgrid reconfiguration occurring due to faults, changing energy usage patterns and inclusion and removal of DERs. By using suitable processor based technology it is aimed to automate the process, reduce the cost and size of establishment and reduce the overall cost of energy to the supplier.

5 citations


Cites background from "Optimum Coordination of Overcurrent..."

  • ...Thus the reduction in the amount of energy consumption is precedence over all, which can be achieved by increasing the penetration of DGs [11-19]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2017
TL;DR: Two Phase Simplex and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm are implemented on a two bus radial system for optimization of Time multiplier setting values (TMS values) which required for the coordination of overcurrent relays.
Abstract: Series of devices are included in the power system networks for the safety of the people and components from faults. They are mainly required because high current may cause damage to devices in the system and people. The primary protection system and its backup with appropriate time grading ie the tripping time (maximum) for the point which is located very far from the actual location of the fault. Radial distribution networks often meet with overcurrent fault conditions. Hence, the utilization of overcurrent relays is a must for the protection of devices from high current faults. The major work of a protection engineer is to maintain coordination time interval among relays during overcurrent relay coordination. Thus Optimization algorithms are applied to relay parameters, so that the faults can be cleared in the minimum time. In this paper. Two Phase Simplex and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm are implemented on a two bus radial system for optimization of Time multiplier setting values (TMS values) which required for the coordination of overcurrent relays.

4 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2017
TL;DR: The optimum time coordination of overcurrent relay in distribution network solved using Differential Evolution method and Dual Simplex method is presented in this paper.
Abstract: Overcurrent (OC) relay plays a major role in power distribution system. It protects electrical power systems against excessive current which are caused by faults like short circuits, ground faults, etc. It is necessary to clear the fault within a least possible time. The optimum time coordination of overcurrent relay in distribution network solved using Differential Evolution method and Dual Simplex method is presented in this paper. These methods are used to find the optimized values of time multiplier settings (TMS) of relays using linear programming problem (LPP). Differential evolution considers the present existing constraints to form the optimized values using mutation mechanism. Dual simplex gives the optimum solution without introducing any artificial variables. Differential Evolution and Dual simplex technique are presented in this paper for optimum time coordination of OC relays in a radial fed distribution system.

3 citations


Cites background from "Optimum Coordination of Overcurrent..."

  • ...The overcurrent condition is caused due to many reasons like phase faults, earth faults, winding fault etc [1-2]....

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  • ...For all the relays, inverse definite minimum time (IDMT) characteristics are assumed [1], i....

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  • ...where, n number of relays topi operating time for the primary relay at i, for a fault at i under the following constraints [1]:...

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References
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Book
05 Jan 1998
TL;DR: Introduction to Optimization The Binary genetic Algorithm The Continuous Parameter Genetic Algorithm Applications An Added Level of Sophistication Advanced Applications Evolutionary Trends Appendix Glossary Index.
Abstract: Introduction to Optimization The Binary Genetic Algorithm The Continuous Parameter Genetic Algorithm Applications An Added Level of Sophistication Advanced Applications Evolutionary Trends Appendix Glossary Index.

4,006 citations

Book
15 Aug 2004
TL;DR: An embedded interaction of generators through the transmission network which is governed by the differential and algebraic equations of the apparatus and interconnects is implied, which has to be protected from abnormalities.
Abstract: They may occupy different angular positions, but all machines rotate at the same electrical speed. This close knitting implies an embedded interaction of generators through the transmission network which is governed by the differential and algebraic equations of the apparatus and interconnects. This aspect is referred to as the system behaviour. This system has to be protected from abnormalities which is the task of protection system.

204 citations


"Optimum Coordination of Overcurrent..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Protective relays detect and locate fault with the help of current transformers and voltage transformers and issue a command to the circuit breaker to disconnect the faulty element....

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Book
01 Nov 2011

131 citations


"Optimum Coordination of Overcurrent..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...This paper compares dual simplex (an iterative method) with genetic algorithm (GA) (an evolutionary method) to achieve optimum relay coordination in a radial network....

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  • ...This time lag is created to prevent the relay from operating for transient current surges in feeder [1, 3]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
16 Dec 2009
TL;DR: This paper presents dual simplex technique for optimum coordination of OC relays in a ring fed distribution system to minimize the time of operation of relays and at the same time, to avoid the mal-operation of relay.
Abstract: This paper presents dual simplex method for coordination of overcurrent (OC) relays. The OC relays are the major protection devices in a distribution system. OC relay is usually employed as backup protection. But in some situations it may be the only protection provided. To reduce the power outages, mal-operation of the backup relays should be avoided, and therefore, OC relay coordination in power distribution network is a major concern of protection engineer. The OC relay coordination in ring fed distribution networks is a highly constrained optimization problem. The purpose is to find an optimum relay setting to minimize the time of operation of relays and at the same time, to avoid the mal-operation of relays. This paper presents dual simplex technique for optimum coordination of OC relays in a ring fed distribution system. A brief comparison with two phase simplex method is also given.

60 citations


"Optimum Coordination of Overcurrent..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Keywords- overcurrent relays; constrained optimization; time multiplier setting; dual simplex; genetic algorithm I. INTRODUCTION The main function of electric power distribution is to carry power from the transmission system to consumers....

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  • ...This time lag is created to prevent the relay from operating for transient current surges in feeder [1, 3]....

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  • ...= ( ) (2) The Plug multiplier setting (PSM) is given by PSM = ( ) (3) t opj = λ ∗ (TMS) ∗ "(PSM)#– 1$ (4) i.e. topj = α(TMS) (5) From (5) and (1) the objective function is obtained as: n Min z = ∑ αj(TMS)j (6) j=1 The value of TMS is hence determined [3]....

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