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Journal ArticleDOI

Palyno-plankton stratigraphy and environmental changes during the Holocene in the Bengal Basin, India

30 Oct 1990-Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (Elsevier)-Vol. 65, pp 25-35
TL;DR: In this paper, the intertidal and freshwater biota have been recovered from four dated estuarine sediment sections, at Calcutta (CV type section), Dum Dum (DI), Barrackpore (BI), and Kolaghat (KI) in the Bengal Basin, India.
About: This article is published in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.The article was published on 1990-10-30. It has received 39 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Mangrove & Avicennia.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A detailed geochemical investigation of 40 groundwater samples along with statistical analysis on these chemical data reveal: (i) four types of groundwater quality, for example, good, poor, very poor and water unsuitable for drinking purpose, (ii) four hydrochemical facies which may be assigned to three broad types such as fresh, blended, and brackish waters, (iii) the evolution of the “blended” water is possibly due to hydraulic mixing of “fresh” and “brackish” waters within the aquifer matrix and/or
Abstract: The area lies between Hugli river in the northwest and Bidyadhari river in the east and includes the East Kolkata Wetlands. The East Kolkata Wetlands is included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (“Ramsar List”), as per the Convention on Wetlands signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. This wetland has been declared as a Ramsar site on the 19th August 2002 (Ramsar site no. 1208) and therefore has acquired an international status. The area is a part of the lower deltaic plain of the Bhagirathi–Ganga river system and is generally flat in nature. The sub-surface geology of the area is completely blanketed by the Quaternary fluviatile sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay, sand and sand mixed with occasional gravel. The Quaternary aquifer is sandwiched between two clay sequences. The confined aquifer is made up of moderately well sorted sand and reflects fluviatile environment of deposition. The regional groundwater flow direction is from east to west. Detailed geochemical investigations of 40 groundwater samples along with statistical analysis (for example, correlation and principal component analysis) on these chemical data reveal: (i) four types of groundwater quality, for example, good, poor, very poor and water unsuitable for drinking purpose, (ii) four hydrochemical facies which may be assigned to three broad types such as “fresh”, “blended”, and “brackish” waters, (iii) the evolution of the “blended” water is possibly due to hydraulic mixing of “fresh” and “brackish” waters within the aquifer matrix and/or in well mixing, and (iv) absence of Na–Cl facies indicates continuous flushing of the aquifer.

326 citations


Cites background or methods from "Palyno-plankton stratigraphy and en..."

  • ...The Quaternary stratigraphy of the area (Table 1) has been compiled on the basis of lithological, floral, faunal and radiocarbon dating (Chaterji et al. 1959; Banerjee et al. 1984; Sen and Banerjee 1990; Barui and Chanda 1992; Hait et al. 1996)....

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  • ...level under a marine environment ( Sen and Banerjee 1990; Barui and Chanda 1992; Hait et al. 1994a, b, 1996; Sikdar et al. 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Bengal basin is the largest fluvio-deltaic sedimentary system on Earth and is located in Bangladesh and three eastern states of India as discussed by the authors, which is bounded by the Indian craton on the west and the Indo-Burmese fold belts on the east.

159 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the decay and changing course of rivers in the western part of the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta is discussed. But the decay of rivers has been exacerbated by human intervention, especially where rivers are embanked and no allowance made for their migration through meandering and avulsion.

124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sedimentology, carbon isotope and sequence stratigraphic analysis of subsurface sediments from western part of Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta plain shows that a Late Quaternary marine clay and fluvial channel-overbank sediments of MIS 5 and 3 highstands are traceable below the Holocene strata as mentioned in this paper.

94 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used radiocarbon-dated cores to distinguish Holocene deltaic and underlying transgressive units and late Pleistocene alluvial deposits in the western Ganges-Brahmaputra delta.
Abstract: Litho- and chronostratigraphic analyses of radiocarbon-dated cores are utilized herein to distinguish Holocene deltaic and underlying transgressive units and late Pleistocene alluvial deposits in the western Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. Regional distribution of these facies indicates that neotectonic displacement, including differential land subsidence, of delta plain sectors is one of the major controls of late Quaternary depositional patterns in this depocenter. The spatial and temporal configuration of Holocene deltaic sediment thickness, mud and sand layers, peats interstratified in Holocene sequences, and modern mangrove forests that form the Sundarbans are attributed to NE-SW, and to a lesser extent NW-SE, neotectonic trends. Holocene sedimentary and stratigraphic configurations closely parallel geological structures, some of them deep seated, that affected this region during most of the Tertiary and have continued to the present. Extensive mangrove forests developed along the NE-SW zone of thickened Holocene deltaic deposits. Their present configuration is related to natural factors, such as eastward tilting of the delta, rapid sediment accumulation (to 0.7 cm/yr), marked land subsidence (to 0.5 cm/yr), and increasing anthropogenic influences, including large-scale land reclamation and decreased river flow influx. The diverse and extensive mangrove tracts of the delta have significant environmental and economic implications for the rapidly growing population, including serving as a buffer zone that helps to reduce the impact of landward-driven tides, storms and cyclones. Interpretation of Holocene facies in the subsurface by means of radiocarbon-dated cores provides a mean to more precisely define the interaction between contemporary Holocene depositional patterns and neotectonics. This information, in turn, can be utilized to develop realistic measures needed to minimize further degradation of this biologically unique ecosystem.

87 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mangrove palynological investigations at Princess Charlotte Bay indicate that major mangrove and salt marsh taxa display highly localized pollen dispersal, despite the potential for tidal redistribution, and may be highly effective in the study of vegetation-geomorphic process interaction.
Abstract: Palynological investigations at Princess Charlotte Bay in northeastern Australia were aimed at the reconstruction of mangrove vegetation histories on a prograded chenier plain. Fossil sediment samples were collected from two short core sequences. Extensive investigation of modern pollen production and dispersal, through pollen trap and surface sample analyses, provides a basis for interpretation of the microfossil record. The results permit the development of a model for pollen transfer across the chenier plain, and indicate that major mangrove and salt marsh taxa display highly localized pollen dispersal, despite the potential for tidal redistribution. The fossil pollen sequences provide convincing records of mangrove and salt marsh successions which relate to coastal landform development. Major differences between vegetation successions interpreted from core analyses are attributed to specific geomorphic events in the evolution of the chenier plain. It is concluded that mangrove palynological investigations may be highly effective in the study of vegetation-geomorphic process interaction, and in the study of local vegetation and sea level histories.

101 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt is made to analyse and reclassify the Tidal swamp forests is greater detail but adhering to the original framework of Champion and Seth (1968).
Abstract: Studies on the Indian estuarine border vegetation have gained a steady importance in the recent years and considerable valuable data have been gathered especially with regard to floristic, edaphic and ecological aspects by various worhers and in particular by the Ecoloay Unit in the Botanical Survey of India, which is engaged in ecological studies on Indian coastal vegetation for the last 13 years. Based on this knowledge, an attempt is now made to analyse and reclassify the Tidal swamp forests is greater detail but adhering to the original framework of Champion and Seth (1968). In the present paper, this vegetational type has been sub-divided into two types: Euestuarine and Prostuarine; and the Prostuarine complex type has been further sub-divided into three sub-types: Tidal Mangrove, Euhyaline and Probyline Under each type and their sub-types the salient fetures such as plant groupings, topography, indicator plants and edaphic characteristics have been discussed.

18 citations