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Resolution of qualification issues for existing structural materials.

06 Aug 2012-

About: The article was published on 2012-08-06 and is currently open access. It has received 8 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Resolution (electron density).

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Resolution of Qualification Issues
for Existing Structural Materials
Nuclear Engineering
Division

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Resolution of Qualification Issues
for Existing Structural Materials
Prepared
for
U.S. Department
of Energy
Reactor
Campaign
K. Natesan, Meimei
Li, and S. Majumdar
Argonne National
Laboratory
and
R. K. Nanstad and T. -L. Sham
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
September
2009

Resolution of Qualification Issues for Existing Structural Materials
September 30, 2009
i
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report gives a detailed assessment of several key technical issues that needs resolu-
tion for the existing structural materials with emphasis on application in liquid metal reactors
(LMRs), in particular, sodium cooled fast reactors. The work is a combined effort between Ar-
gonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the
technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Fuel Cycle
Initiative (AFCI) Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY09
(M2505050201) under the work package “Advanced Materials Code Qualification”.
The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate
the key technical requirements for the qualification of currently available and future advanced
materials for application in sodium reactor systems and the resolution of issues that the U.S. Nu-
clear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has raised in the past on structural materials in support of
the design and licensing of the LMR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the develop-
ment of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety
margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future ad-
vanced sodium reactors. Qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs
for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. However, the devel-
opment of sufficient database and qualification of these materials for application in LMRs
require considerable amount of time and resources. In the meantime, the currently available ma-
terials will be used in the early development of fast reactors.
Nuclear structural component designs in the U.S. comply with the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and
the NRC grants licensing. As the LMR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light
water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with
ASME Section III Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). As-
sessment of materials performance issues and high temperature design methodology issues
pertinent to the LMR were presented in an earlier report (Natesan et al. 2008). In a subsequent
report (Majumdar et al. 2009), we addressed the needs in high temperature methodologies for de-
sign of various high temperature components in sodium cooled fast reactor.
The present report addresses several key technical issues for the currently available struc-
tural materials such as Type 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels such as
2.25Cr-1Mo and modified 9Cr-1Mo. The 60-year design life for the LMR presents a significant
challenge to the development of database, extrapolation/prediction of long-term performance,
and high temperature structural design methodology. The current Subsection NH is applicable to
the design life only up to 34 years. No experimental data contain test durations of 525,000
hours, and it is impractical to conduct such long-term tests in any types of testing. So far the
longest creep tests for Grade 91 and Grade 92 steels have run up to 100,000 hours. It has been
noted that there is a large drop in creep rupture strength in long-term tests for these high-Cr
creep-resistant steels, which may result in overestimation of the long-term creep strength and al-
lowable stress. The report addresses in detail the need for a mechanistic understanding of the
structural materials, from the standpoint of the effects of thermal aging, creep deformation, creep
fracture, fatigue and creep-fatigue, creep-fatigue predictive models, fatigue and creep crack

Resolution of Qualification Issues for Existing Structural Materials
September 30, 2009
ii
growth, and fracture toughness. Based on an in-depth assessment of the available data and
mechanistic understanding, key technical issues are identified and discussed for each of the
property areas. Furthermore, we have proposed viable approaches to resolve the issues and pri-
oritized our recommendations.

Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
M.H. Aliabadi1, Mario Guagliano2Institutions (2)

6 citations


ReportDOI
05 Nov 2012
Abstract: ............................................................................................................................... i TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... iii LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................... iv LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................... v 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 1 2 ASME Creep-Fatigue Design Rule for G91 Steel and Current Development ....................... 3 3 Creep-Fatigue Experiments .................................................................................................... 5 3.1 Experimental Procedure .................................................................................................. 5 3.2 Experimental Results ...................................................................................................... 8 3.2.1 Creep-Fatigue Data ............................................................................................... 8 3.2.2 Microstructure .................................................................................................... 13 4 Modeling Creep-Fatigue Interaction .................................................................................... 14 4.1 Cyclic Softening Model ................................................................................................ 14 4.2 Stress Relaxation Model ............................................................................................... 18 4.3 Improved Bilinear Creep-Fatigue Damage Model ....................................................... 22 4.4 Interactive Damage Rate Model ................................................................................... 29 5 Accelerated Creep-Fatigue Testing Methodology ............................................................... 31 6 Summary and Future Work .................................................................................................. 33 References ................................................................................................................................. 35

2 citations


Cites background from "Resolution of qualification issues ..."

  • ...A list of key technical issues was identified and a viable approach to resolve these issues and the R&D priority were recommended [Natesan et al. 2009]....

    [...]


01 Jan 1982
Abstract: Available data on creep-fatigue life and fracture behavior of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel are reviewed. Whereas creep-fatigue interaction is important for Type 304 stainless steel, oxidation effects appear to dominate the time-dependent fatigue behavior of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. Four of the currently available predictive methods - the Linear Damage Rule, Frequency Separation Equation, Strain Range Partitioning Equation, and Damage Rate Equation - are evaluated for their predictive capability. Variations in the parameters for the various predictive methods with temperature, heat of material, heat treatment, and environment are investigated. Relative trends in the lives predicted by the various methods as functions of test duration, waveshape, etc., are discussed. The predictive methods will need modification in order to account for oxidation and aging effects in the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. Future tests that will emphasize the difference between the various predictive methods are proposed.

1 citations


01 Jan 1983
Abstract: The ferritic (martensitic) steels and the austenitic stainless steels are being considered for use as first wall and blanket structural components for fusion reactors. Tensile specimens of normalized-and-tempered 9 Cr-1 MoVNb and 12 Cr-1 MoVW steels, normalized-and-tempered and isothermally annealed 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, and 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel were irradiated at approximately 50/sup 0/C to damage levels of up to about 9 displacements per atom (dpa) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The preirradiated microstructures of the 9 Cr-1 MoVNb and 12 Cr-1 MoVW steels were a tempered martensite; the microstructure of the normalized-and-tempered 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel was tempered bainite, and that of the isothermally annealed 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel was primarily polygonal ferrite.

1 citations


References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1987

680 citations



Book
31 Mar 1994
Abstract: Introduction. Processes of deformation and fracture at high temperatures. Stress analysis of uncracked bodies. Stress analysis of cracked bodies. Models for creep crack initiation and growth. Creep-fatigue crack growth. Experimental determinations of high temperature crack growth. Practical applications. Index.

352 citations


Book
01 Jan 1984

254 citations


"Resolution of qualification issues ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In 316 SS η-carbide (M6C) has been observed after long aging times (>1500 h) at 649°C (Marshall 1984)....

    [...]

  • ...This phase precipitates at triple points, grain boundaries, or incoherent twins or within grains after long-term exposure at high temperatures (Marshall 1984)....

    [...]

  • ...4.1 (Marshall 1984)....

    [...]

  • ...Laves phase forms at temperatures above 600°C in 316 SS (Marshall 1984)....

    [...]

  • ...The time-temperatureprecipitation (TTP) diagram for 316 SS (Marshall 1984)....

    [...]


Book
31 Mar 1998
Abstract: Overview Introduction Classification of Fracture Mechanics Regimes History of Developments in Fracture Mechanics Review of Solid Mechanics Stress Strain Elasticity Plasticity Consideration of Creep Component Analysis in the Plastic Regime Fully Plastic/Limit Loads Review of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Basic Concepts Crack Tip Plasticity Compliance Relationships Fracture Toughness and Predictive Fracture in Components Subcritical Crack Growth Limitations of LEFM Analysis of Cracks under Elastic-Plastic Conditions Introduction Rice's J-Integral J-Integral, Crack Tip Stress Fields, and Crack Tip Opening Displacement J-Integral as a Fracture Parameter and Its Limitations Methods of Estimating J-Integral Analytical Solutions J-Integral for Test Specimens J for Growing Cracks Numerically Obtained Solutions Tables of J-Solutions Crack Growth Resistance Curves Fracture Parameters under Elastic-Plastic Loading Experimental Methods for Determining Stable Crack Growth and Fracture Special Considerations for Weldments Instability, Dynamic Fracture, and Crack Arrest Fracture Instability Fracture under Dynamic Conditions Crack Arrest Test Methods for Dynamic Fracture and Crack Arrest Constraint Effects and Microscopic Aspects of Fracture Higher Order Terms of Asymptotic Series Cleavage Fracture Ductile Fracture Ductile-Brittle Transition Fatigue Crack Growth under Large-Scale Plasticity Crack Tip Cyclic Plasticity, Damage, and Crack Closure ?J-Integral Test Methods for Characterizing FCGR under Large Plasticity Conditions Behavior of Small Cracks Analysis of Cracks in Creeping Materials Stress Analysis of Cracks Under Steady-State Creep Analysis of Cracks under Small-Scale and Transition Creep Consideration of Primary Creep Effects of Crack Growth on the Crack Tip Stress Fields Crack Growth in Creep-Brittle Materials Creep Crack Growth Test Methods for Characterizing Creep Crack Growth Microscopic Aspects of Creep Crack Growth Creep Crack Growth in Weldments Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Early Approaches for Characterizing Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior Time-Dependent Fracture Mechanics Parameters for Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Methods of Determining (Ct)avg Experimental Methods for Characterizing Creep Crack Growth Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Correlations Case Studies Applications of Fracture Mechanics Fracture Mechanics Analysis Methodology Case Studies Appendices Index

202 citations


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