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Book ChapterDOI

Structural Behaviour of Gopurams in South Indian Temples

TL;DR: In this paper, the structural behavior of the gopuram with a focus on a centuries-old incomplete structure in the town of Thiruvellarai in Tamil Nadu is investigated.
Abstract: The multi-storied masonry “Gopuram” or the ceremonial entrance gateway, an ubiquitous structure in a South Indian temple, was a feature introduced circa 14th c. AD in order to confer architectural status to structurally insignificant ancient shrines. The gopurams of the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai (1600 AD), the Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam (17th c. AD) and the Ekambareswar Temple in Kancheepuram (16th c. AD), 52 m, 72 m and 59 m tall, respectively, are representative of the highly evolved Dravidian temple architecture. The current research is an attempt to understand the structural behaviour of the gopuram with a focus on a centuries-old incomplete structure in the town of Thiruvellarai in Tamil Nadu. The paper presents outcomes of detailed field and laboratory investigations on the sub-structure, the superstructure and structural materials of the gopuram, that provide insight into the structural configuration of the gopuram. It then examines the structural response to gravity and lateral forces, through non-linear finite element models of the structure. One of the significant aspects studied is the role of the core masonry in the structural response of the multi-leaf masonry structure of the gopuram. In addition the role of floor diaphragms in the structural stability of the gopuram is investigated. The outcome of the study is expected to provide important insights to the reasons for structural distress and collapse of such structures, particularly the Vijayagopuram at Srikalahasti in Andhra Pradesh in South India that collapsed in May 2010.
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Book ChapterDOI
02 Nov 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, a thousand pillar temple built during the 12th century AD in Hanamakonda, Telangana State has been considered and a complete three-dimensional finite element numerical model is developed considering all the complex geometries, different types of columns, and mandapas to form the integrated temple model.
Abstract: Ancient structures are a path to understand the cultural heritage and traditions that existed long ago. They become an important link in transferring knowledge from the past to present and future generations. Southern Indian has thousands of temples out of which a few are known for their uniqueness in construction and stability. In this research, a thousand pillar temple built during the 12th century AD in Hanamakonda, Telangana State has been considered. It is the finest example of Kakatiya's architecture, being completely built with stone spreading across the planar dimensions of 34 m × 34 m and a height of 9.5 m. Its foundation is believed to be laid in the sand at a depth of 6 m. A complete three-dimensional finite element numerical model is developed considering all the complex geometries, different types of columns, and mandapas to form the integrated temple model. Stresses in Individual structural elements are calculated to understand the role of complex geometry. Global stresses are computed to understand the load flow and stability of the structure for the gravity analysis.
Journal ArticleDOI
30 Jun 2022
TL;DR: In this article , an ethnographic study of the Arulmigu Kamatchi Amman Devasthanam in Penang, Malaysia is presented, where the primary data comes from ethnographic studies that involve participant observation and spatial study, and secondary data drawn from document and photo reviews alongside the writings of pioneering Indian art historians.
Abstract: Arulmigu Kamatchi Amman Devasthanam in Penang is the sole Vishwakarma community temple in Malaysia, and it marks an entry into the world of Pathars; the traditional Tamil goldsmiths, a sub-ethnic group within the local Indian diaspora. The conception of this temple as “devasthanam” or “place of God”, by the Pathars, implores this study to explore this community temple as a place. This study frames the temple and the lived experience a person has in it as a unit of analysis. The primary data comes from ethnographic study that involves participant observation and spatial study. The secondary data is drawn from document and photo reviews alongside the writings of pioneering Indian art historians. The findings of this study are chronicled as a narrative account to reveal this temple as a dimension of the local Pathar community’s lifeworld and to understand how it develops into a locus that gathers human experience, insideness and identity formation through the conception of Hindu temple as a synergy of form, meaning and use. The findings of this study not only record this temple as a space of specific cultural continuity, but highlights the need to recognize the diversity and differences within Indian diaspora
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a full-scale experimental model is built and the specimen is upgraded using post-installed anchors to ensure integral action between different components without any changes to materials in the as-built configuration.
Abstract: ABSTRACT Traditional construction techniques get replaced with newer systems over a period of time owing to multiple factors including limitations associated with the system in terms of lateral strength and stiffness. However, those construction techniques, which are sustainable and energy efficient can be revived using modern technologies with minimalist interventions. In this regard, the characterization of the lateral load response of a century-old traditional timber-supported composite brick-floor system in southern India called Madras Terrace floor is carried out. A full-scale experimental model is built and the specimen is upgraded using post-installed anchors to ensure integral action between different components without any changes to materials in the as-built configuration. Experimental characterization using monotonic tests is carried out in the as-built and upgraded configurations and the results are validated using numerical analyses. Results demonstrate a significant increase in strength capacity and a ductile post-peak behaviour for the diaphragm in the upgraded configuration. An analytical model, which closely predicts the system response in the upgraded configuration is formulated and a demonstrative case study for the component level seismic assessment of a typical Madras Terrace floor slab as a sub-system of an existing unreinforced masonry building is carried out.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of methods applicable to the study of masonry historical construction, encompassing both classical and advanced ones, is presented in this paper, where the main available strategies, including limit analysis, simplified methods, FEM macro- or micro-modeling and discrete element methods (DEM), are considered with regard to their realism, computer efficiency, data availability and real applicability to large structures.
Abstract: A review of methods applicable to the study of masonry historical construction, encompassing both classical and advanced ones, is presented. Firstly, the paper offers a discussion on the main challenges posed by historical structures and the desirable conditions that approaches oriented to the modeling and analysis of this type of structures should accomplish. Secondly, the main available methods which are actually used for study masonry historical structures are referred to and discussed. The main available strategies, including limit analysis, simplified methods, FEM macro- or micro-modeling and discrete element methods (DEM) are considered with regard to their realism, computer efficiency, data availability and real applicability to large structures. A set of final considerations are offered on the real possibility of carrying out realistic analysis of complex historic masonry structures. In spite of the modern developments, the study of historical buildings is still facing significant difficulties linked to computational effort, possibility of input data acquisition and limited realism of methods.

504 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: This Chapter introduces simple and refined models for masonry, based on the assumption that the material is incapable of sustaining tensile loads and the microscopic structure of masonry.
Abstract: In this Chapter we present the basic experimental facts on masonry materials and introduce simple and refined models for masonry. The simple models are essentially macroscopic and based on the assumption that the material is incapable of sustaining tensile loads (No-Tension assumption). The refined models account for the microscopic structure of masonry, modeling the interaction between the blocks and the interfaces.

78 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the archaeological site of Kancheepuram, South India, is presented, where the seismic input is based on the seismic hazard assessment of a typical 9-tier gopuram and a 16-pillared mandapam.
Abstract: The gopuram (multi-tiered entrance gateway) and the mandapam (pillared multi-purpose hall) are two representative structural forms of South Indian temples. Modelling and seismic analysis of a typical 9-tier gopuram and, 4- and 16-pillared mandapam of the 16th century AD Ekambareswar Temple in Kancheepuram, South India, are discussed. The seismic input is based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the archaeological site. Two modelling strategies, namely lumped plasticity and distributed plasticity modelling, and three analysis approaches, namely linear dynamic, non-linear, static and dynamic analyses were adopted for the seismic assessment of the gopuram. Unlike slender masonry towers, the vulnerable part of the gopuram could be at the upper levels, which is attributable to higher mode effects, and reduction in cross section and axial stresses. Finite element and limit analysis approaches were adopted for the assessment of the mandapam. Potential collapse mechanisms were identified, and the governing collapse of lateral load, calculated based on limit theory, was compared with the seismic demand as a safety check. Simple relations, as a means of rapid preliminary seismic assessment, are proposed for the mandapam.

7 citations