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Book ChapterDOI

Waste Management in Textile Industry—A Novel Application of Carbon Footprint Analysis

01 Jan 2020-pp 125-130

Abstract: The higher quantities of water and a wider spectrum of dyes and auxiliary chemicals used impart a complex nature to combined effluent from various textile manufacturing units. Standards for color, organics, and dissolved solids are becoming stringent with time and regulators are in demand of zero liquid discharge units. For any zero liquid discharge facility, the major concerns include higher energy consumption for reject management and the generation of hazardous solid waste. As per the government regulations in Tamil Nadu, India, all the textile industries with a daily effluent discharge of more than 25 kiloliters must set up a zero liquid discharge facility. This has led to the accumulation of million tons of hazardous solid waste in the premises of textile manufacturing units. A carbon footprint is a measure of the total amount of greenhouse gases emissions of a defined person, organization, or a region associated with certain activities, production processes and life cycle of a product. The application of carbon footprint analysis to different waste management options can effectively help in the quantification of the overall environmental impact. The analysis performed can give key inputs to the stakeholders in the decision-making process regarding waste management in textile industries. Based on the methodology applied as per IPCC guidelines, the carbon footprint of a zero liquid discharge textile manufacturing facility in south India was found to be 10598.31 tCO2 equivalents per year. Sustainable waste management in textile industries plays an important role in minimizing the overall environmental impact of this continuously growing industry.
Topics: Carbon footprint (58%), Zero liquid discharge (57%), Municipal solid waste (55%), Hazardous waste (55%), Greenhouse gas (51%)
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water, and the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation are recommended.
Abstract: Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation.

880 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-known tool for analyzing environmental impacts on a wide perspective with reference to a product system and the related environmental and economic impacts. The need for a novel approach that complements environmental and financial considerations is addressed in this study with the introduction of a new graphical representation: the Environmental Performance Strategy Map. This graphical map allows one to combine the main environmental indicators (footprints) with the additional dimension of cost. The paper defines the Sustainable Environmental Performance Indicator as a single measure for sustainability of a given option. Comparison of different options for strategic decision-making purposes can be enhanced and facilitated by the use of this indicator.

316 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating at different scales and using different technology options based on primary data from 50 STPs operating in India and the UK are presented.
Abstract: The paper presents energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating at different scales and using different technology options based on primary data from 50 STPs operating in India and the UK. The study used a combination of fundamental mass-balance approach for energy consumption and the methodology defined by IPCC for the carbon emissions. Small-scale institutional STPs consume twelve times the energy consumed by large-scale municipal STPs, the corresponding energy intensities being 4.87 kWh/m(3) and 0.40 kWh/m(3) respectively. Embodied energy from construction material and chemicals accounted for 46% and 33% of the total energy intensity of the municipal and institutional STPs respectively. The average carbon footprint of large-scale STPs is 0.78 kgCO2eq/m(3) and for small-scale STPs it is 3.04 kgCO2eq/m(3). However, fugitive emissions from large-scale STPs constituted 74% of the total carbon emissions whereas the figure was only 0.05% for small-scale STPs. Average electrical energy intensity in STPs in India is much lower (0.14 kWh/m(3)) than that in the UK (0.46 kWh/m(3)). This is due to the reason that STPs in India do not have resource recovery processes and use solar heat for sludge drying. The paper offers information and insights for designing low carbon strategies for urban waste infrastructure.

63 citations


01 Jan 2015-
Abstract: The pollution load of the various textiles industrial effluents vary from time to time depends upon the dyes, impurities on the fabrics and other processing chemicals used for the dyeing. Five sampling points were identified from textile industries of Tirupur city, India (E1 to E5) and the study was carried out on the basis of field analysis and characterization studies. The major pollution indicating parameters like COD, BOD, TDS, SS, alkalinity, pH, total hardness, sulfate and chloride levels were analyzed. The effluent was highly turbid and coloured with average organic and inorganic loading. BOD5/COD ratios ranged from 0.2-0.5 indicates that the effluent contained a large proportion of non-biodegradable organic matter. The effluent also contained high concentration of sulfate, chloride, calcium and magnesium, which are responsible for higher total hardness of effluent. Sample E4 shows high total hardness, alkalinity, pH and conductivity compare to all other effluents is needed much attention to find a suitable technology for the treatment. The effluents from the study area containing pollution indicating parameters considerably higher than the standards stipulated by the governmental authorities. Based on these characteristics, it is suggested that the effluent is not be suitable for discharge directly into aqueous bodies without treatment.

16 citations