scispace - formally typeset


University of Birmingham

EducationBirmingham, United Kingdom
About: University of Birmingham is a(n) education organization based out in Birmingham, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Poison control. The organization has 51794 authors who have published 115304 publication(s) receiving 4335316 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Birmingham University & Uni of Birmingham.

More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
S. Agostinelli1, John Allison2, K. Amako3, J. Apostolakis4, Henrique Araujo5, P. Arce4, Makoto Asai6, D. Axen4, S. Banerjee7, G. Barrand, F. Behner4, Lorenzo Bellagamba8, J. Boudreau9, L. Broglia10, A. Brunengo8, H. Burkhardt4, Stephane Chauvie, J. Chuma11, R. Chytracek4, Gene Cooperman12, G. Cosmo4, P. V. Degtyarenko13, Andrea Dell'Acqua4, G. Depaola14, D. Dietrich15, R. Enami, A. Feliciello, C. Ferguson16, H. Fesefeldt4, Gunter Folger4, Franca Foppiano, Alessandra Forti2, S. Garelli, S. Gianì4, R. Giannitrapani17, D. Gibin4, J. J. Gomez Y Cadenas4, I. González4, G. Gracia Abril4, G. Greeniaus18, Walter Greiner15, Vladimir Grichine, A. Grossheim4, Susanna Guatelli, P. Gumplinger11, R. Hamatsu19, K. Hashimoto, H. Hasui, A. Heikkinen20, A. S. Howard5, Vladimir Ivanchenko4, A. Johnson6, F.W. Jones11, J. Kallenbach, Naoko Kanaya4, M. Kawabata, Y. Kawabata, M. Kawaguti, S.R. Kelner21, Paul R. C. Kent22, A. Kimura23, T. Kodama24, R. P. Kokoulin21, M. Kossov13, Hisaya Kurashige25, E. Lamanna26, Tapio Lampén20, V. Lara4, Veronique Lefebure4, F. Lei16, M. Liendl4, W. S. Lockman, Francesco Longo27, S. Magni, M. Maire, E. Medernach4, K. Minamimoto24, P. Mora de Freitas, Yoshiyuki Morita3, K. Murakami3, M. Nagamatu24, R. Nartallo28, Petteri Nieminen28, T. Nishimura, K. Ohtsubo, M. Okamura, S. W. O'Neale29, Y. Oohata19, K. Paech15, J Perl6, Andreas Pfeiffer4, Maria Grazia Pia, F. Ranjard4, A.M. Rybin, S.S Sadilov4, E. Di Salvo8, Giovanni Santin27, Takashi Sasaki3, N. Savvas2, Y. Sawada, Stefan Scherer15, S. Sei24, V. Sirotenko4, David J. Smith6, N. Starkov, H. Stoecker15, J. Sulkimo20, M. Takahata23, Satoshi Tanaka30, E. Tcherniaev4, E. Safai Tehrani6, M. Tropeano1, P. Truscott31, H. Uno24, L. Urbán, P. Urban32, M. Verderi, A. Walkden2, W. Wander33, H. Weber15, J.P. Wellisch4, Torre Wenaus34, D.C. Williams, Douglas Wright6, T. Yamada24, H. Yoshida24, D. Zschiesche15 
Abstract: G eant 4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It includes a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits. The physics processes offered cover a comprehensive range, including electromagnetic, hadronic and optical processes, a large set of long-lived particles, materials and elements, over a wide energy range starting, in some cases, from 250 eV and extending in others to the TeV energy range. It has been designed and constructed to expose the physics models utilised, to handle complex geometries, and to enable its easy adaptation for optimal use in different sets of applications. The toolkit is the result of a worldwide collaboration of physicists and software engineers. It has been created exploiting software engineering and object-oriented technology and implemented in the C++ programming language. It has been used in applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, accelerator design, space engineering and medical physics.

16,046 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: It is supposed that a region within an isotropic elastic solid undergoes a spontaneous change of form which, if the surrounding material were absent, would be some prescribed homogeneous deformation. Because of the presence of the surrounding material stresses will be present both inside and outside the region. The resulting elastic field may be found very simply with the help of a sequence of imaginary cutting, straining and welding operations. In particular, if the region is an ellipsoid the strain inside it is uniform and may be expressed in terms of tabu­lated elliptic integrals. In this case a further problem may be solved. An ellipsoidal region in an infinite medium has elastic constants different from those of the rest of the material; how does the presence of this inhomogeneity disturb an applied stress-field uniform at large distances? It is shown that to answer several questions of physical or engineering interest it is necessary to know only the relatively simple elastic field inside the ellipsoid.

10,985 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Jan 1993-Nature
TL;DR: The best understood form of long-term potentiation is induced by the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor complex, which allows electrical events at the postsynaptic membrane to be transduced into chemical signals which, in turn, are thought to activate both pre- and post Synaptic mechanisms to generate a persistent increase in synaptic strength.
Abstract: Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is the primary experimental model for investigating the synaptic basis of learning and memory in vertebrates. The best understood form of long-term potentiation is induced by the activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. This subtype of glutamate receptor endows long-term potentiation with Hebbian characteristics, and allows electrical events at the postsynaptic membrane to be transduced into chemical signals which, in turn, are thought to activate both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms to generate a persistent increase in synaptic strength.

10,688 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Georges Aad1, T. Abajyan2, Brad Abbott3, Jalal Abdallah4  +2964 moreInstitutions (200)
Abstract: A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton–proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosities of approximately 4.8 fb−1 collected at View the MathML source in 2011 and 5.8 fb−1 at View the MathML source in 2012. Individual searches in the channels H→ZZ(⁎)→4l, H→γγ and H→WW(⁎)→eνμν in the 8 TeV data are combined with previously published results of searches for H→ZZ(⁎), WW(⁎), View the MathML source and τ+τ− in the 7 TeV data and results from improved analyses of the H→ZZ(⁎)→4l and H→γγ channels in the 7 TeV data. Clear evidence for the production of a neutral boson with a measured mass of View the MathML source is presented. This observation, which has a significance of 5.9 standard deviations, corresponding to a background fluctuation probability of 1.7×10−9, is compatible with the production and decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson.

8,774 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Summary Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8–75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0–8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0–62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0–7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3–50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8–5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0–49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5–5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5–46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2–5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3–3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0–11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862–11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018–19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.

8,768 citations


Showing all 51794 results

Nicholas G. Martin1921770161952
Paul G. Richardson1831533155912
Jie Zhang1784857221720
David R. Williams1782034138789
Masayuki Yamamoto1711576123028
Gregory Y.H. Lip1693159171742
Dennis R. Burton16468390959
J. E. Brau1621949157675
L. Joseph Melton16153197861
Paul Emery1581314121293
Wolfgang Wagner1562342123391
David H. Adams1551613117783
Julian Parkhill149759104736
J. Fraser Stoddart147123996083
Robert A. Kyle146122189997
Network Information
Related Institutions (5)
University of Manchester

168K papers, 6.4M citations

98% related

University College London

210.6K papers, 9.8M citations

97% related

University of Cambridge

282.2K papers, 14.4M citations

97% related

University of Bristol

113.1K papers, 4.9M citations

96% related

University of Oxford

258.1K papers, 12.9M citations

96% related

No. of papers from the Institution in previous years