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World happiness report

01 Jan 2012-Research Papers in Economics (The Earth Institute, Columbia University)-
TL;DR: The report, published by the Earth Institute and co-edited by the institute's director, Jeffrey Sachs, reflects a new worldwide demand for more attention to happiness and absence of misery as criteria for government policy.
Abstract: The report, published by the Earth Institute and co-edited by the institute’s director, Jeffrey Sachs, reflects a new worldwide demand for more attention to happiness and absence of misery as criteria for government policy. It reviews the state of happiness in the world today and shows how the new science of happiness explains personal and national variations in happiness.
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Book
03 Jul 2014
TL;DR: In this paper, Bostrom's work picks its way carefully through a vast tract of forbiddingly difficult intellectual terrain, and the writing is so lucid that it somehow makes it all seem easy.
Abstract: The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains. If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of our species then would come to depend on the actions of the machine superintelligence. But we have one advantage: we get to make the first move. Will it be possible to construct a seed AI or otherwise to engineer initial conditions so as to make an intelligence explosion survivable? How could one achieve a controlled detonation? To get closer to an answer to this question, we must make our way through a fascinating landscape of topics and considerations. Read the book and learn about oracles, genies, singletons; about boxing methods, tripwires, and mind crime; about humanity's cosmic endowment and differential technological development; indirect normativity, instrumental convergence, whole brain emulation and technology couplings; Malthusian economics and dystopian evolution; artificial intelligence, and biological cognitive enhancement, and collective intelligence. This profoundly ambitious and original book picks its way carefully through a vast tract of forbiddingly difficult intellectual terrain. Yet the writing is so lucid that it somehow makes it all seem easy. After an utterly engrossing journey that takes us to the frontiers of thinking about the human condition and the future of intelligent life, we find in Nick Bostrom's work nothing less than a reconceptualization of the essential task of our time.

907 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a model of thriving through relationships is presented to provide a theoretical foundation for identifying the specific interpersonal processes that underlie the effects of close relationships on thriving, highlighting two life contexts through which people may potentially thrive (coping successfully with life's adversities and actively pursuing life opportunities for growth and development).
Abstract: Close and caring relationships are undeniably linked to health and well-being at all stages in the life span. Yet the specific pathways through which close relationships promote optimal well-being are not well understood. In this article, we present a model of thriving through relationships to provide a theoretical foundation for identifying the specific interpersonal processes that underlie the effects of close relationships on thriving. This model highlights two life contexts through which people may potentially thrive (coping successfully with life's adversities and actively pursuing life opportunities for growth and development), it proposes two relational support functions that are fundamental to the experience of thriving in each life context, and it identifies mediators through which relational support is likely to have long-term effects on thriving. This perspective highlights the need for researchers to take a new look at social support by conceptualizing it as an interpersonal process with a focus on thriving.

792 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBRE) as mentioned in this paper is a private non-profit corporation, formed to conduct or assist in the making of exact and impartial investigations in the field of economic, social and industrial science, and to this end to cooperate with governments, universities, learned societies, and individuals.
Abstract: What manner of organization is the National Bureau of Economic Research? How does it select research topics? Who does the work and what kind of tasks do they perform? Where do the funds come from? How does the National Bureau safeguard the scientific quality of its findings? How are the results disseminated? Visitors to the National Bureau often ask these and similar questions; perhaps the answers will be of interest to readers of the American Statistician. The National Bureau of Economic Research is a private non-profit corporation, formed, according to its charter, "to conduct, or assist in the making of exact and impartial investigations in the field of economic, social and industrial science, and to this end to cooperate with governments, universities, learned societies, and individuals." Hence it is not a government agency, nor an adjunct of a university, nor does it sell research services. The revenue from the only products it does sell, publications, barely covers the printing costs. Its funds are contributed by philanthropic foundations, by trade and professional organizations, by business concerns, trade unions, and individuals. Contributions are usually on a yearly basis, but some grants cover several years. Some of the funds are earmarked for specific studies; the balance goes to support a general program of research. The National Bureau is governed by a Board of Directors numbering about thirty, selected to represent various institutions and diverse points of view on economic problems. Over the years since the Bureau was founded in 1920 this body of men has made a significant contribution to the development of scientific inquiry in economics, both within the National Bureau and outside. Such outstanding economists as Wesley C. Mitchell, George E. Roberts, Allyn A. Young, Edwin F. Gay, Thomas S. Adams, and John R. Commons have been among its members. At the present time professors from a dozen universities are on the Board. Also, Directors from each of the following organizations are elected: American Statistical Association, American Economic Association, American Farm Economic Association, Economic History Association, American Institute of Accountants, American Management Association, Congress of Industrial Organizations, and American Federation of Labor. Finally, there is a group of Directors at Large, men from varied walks of life with an abiding interest in economic research. The Board serves an important function not only in shaping the broad lines of the research program but also in safeguarding the quality of the results. Matters of policy requiring prompt action are handled by an Executive Committee of eleven, elected by the Board from its membership. Arthur F. Burns, the Director of Research, is the member of the Committee who is directly responsible for the research program. The members of the research staff, numbering about twenty-five, direct the individual studies, and are aided in their work by upwards of forty-five research assistants. A staff of typists, bookkeepers, mimeograph operators, etc., brings the total payroll of the National Bureau to roughly a hundred persons. William J. Carson, the Executive Director, handles the Bureau's finances, accounts, and other administrative matters. Not all the employees of the National Bureau work at the main office at 1819 Broadway, New York City. DuLr Financial Research Program is housed at "Hillside," an estate about 10 miles north of Manhattan overlooking the HuLdson River. Other National BureauL investigators are to be fotund at various universities throughout the United States, since cooperative arrangements are maintained with a number of universities that permit their facultv members to engage in National Butreau studies. Government agencies, too, cooperate in similar ways. Such cooperative relationships are a vital feature of our work, and we try to foster them in many ways. The growing acceptance on the part of universities of the view that research is part of the job of a faculty member has helped to make these efforts productive. For example, for a number of years we have appointed promising young men or women holding university positions as Research Associates for one year. The objective is to enable scholars to pursue their research interests in fields in which the National Bureau also has an interest. Since 1930 twenty-six Research Associates, coming from eighteen American colleges or universities and two foreign universities, have been appointed under the plan. The work of several committees is another example of cooperation for the purpose of advancing research. Two committees, one on financial and the other on fiscal research, help to guide our studies in these areas. They are composed of experts from universities, government agencies, and private business. In 1935 the Universities-National Bureau Committee was established for the express purpose of promoting contact

548 citations

10 Sep 2013
TL;DR: The World Happiness Report 2013 as discussed by the authors is a contribution to that crucial debate and is sponsored by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) and the World Happiness Association (WHA).
Abstract: The world is now in the midst of a major policy debate about the objectives of public policy. What should be the world’s Sustainable Development Goals for the period 2015-2030? The World Happiness Report 2013 is offered as a contribution to that crucial debate. In July 2011 the UN General Assembly passed a historic resolution.1 It invited member countries to measure the happiness of their people and to use this to help guide their public policies. This was followed in April 2012 by the first UN high-level meeting on happiness and well-being, chaired by the Prime Minister of Bhutan. At the same time the first World Happiness Report was published,2 followed some months later by the OECD Guidelines setting an international standard for the measurement of well-being. The present Report is sponsored by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network.

502 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) are developed and are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period.
Abstract: In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.

34,482 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The Satisfaction With Life Scale is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness, but is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability.
Abstract: This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

21,449 citations

Book
01 Aug 1975
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the development of Causality Orientations Theory, a theory of personality Influences on Motivation, and its application in information-Processing Theories.
Abstract: I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.

21,337 citations

Book
01 Jan 2013
Abstract: 1. The integrated wholeness of the organism must be one of the foundation stones of motivation theory. 2. The hunger drive (or any other physiological drive) was rejected as a centering point or model for a definitive theory of motivation. Any drive that is somatically based and localizable was shown to be atypical rather than typical in human motivation. 3. Such a theory should stress and center itself upon ultimate or basic goals rather than partial or superficial ones, upon ends rather than means to these ends. Such a stress would imply a more central place for unconscious than for conscious motivations. 4. There are usually available various cultural paths to the same goal. Therefore conscious, specific, local-cultural desires are not as fundamental in motivation theory as the more basic, unconscious goals. 5. Any motivated behavior, either preparatory or consummatory, must be understood to be a channel through which many basic needs may be simultaneously expressed or satisfied. Typically an act has more than one motivation. 6. Practically all organismic states are to be understood as motivated and as motivating. 7. Human needs arrange themselves in hierarchies of prepotency. That is to say, the appearance of one need usually rests on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need. Man is a perpetually wanting animal. Also no need or drive can be treated as if it were isolated or discrete; every drive is related to the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of other drives. 8. Lists of drives will get us nowhere for various theoretical and practical reasons. Furthermore any classification of motivations

18,001 citations


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  • ...Maslow (1943)....

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Book ChapterDOI

13,767 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Grice (1975)....

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  • ...As argued by Grice (1975)....

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