Other affiliations: University of Oklahoma
Bio: Egemen Aydin is an academic researcher from Istanbul Technical University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wastewater & Sewage treatment. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 30 publications receiving 625 citations. Previous affiliations of Egemen Aydin include University of Oklahoma.
TL;DR: Field data confirms that amoxicillin is more prone to degradation with respect to other antibiotics and Estrone and 17-β estradiol are converted to estriol by natural processes in surface water.
Abstract: The occurrence of 14 mostly used pharmaceuticals from different classes (antibiotics, β-blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and stimulant) and hormones in surface water in Istanbul, Turkey was investigated in this study. An important drinking water source, Buyukcekmece Lake and main rivers flowing into the lake were selected for the monitoring of the compounds. Sampling was conducted five different times in a year in order to observe seasonal changes. A rapid, robust and sensitive method using solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer was established for quantification of both pharmaceuticals and hormones. Limit of quantifications were between 0.5 and 1.1 ng L(-1). Recoveries were between 72-119% and 61-98% for ultra-pure water and for surface water, respectively. All selected compounds were detected at least once in the samples. Some pharmaceuticals were detected as high as a few of micrograms per liter levels in the rivers. Most frequently detected compounds were caffeine and antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole). Synthetic hormone (17α-ethynylestradiol) was detected only 4times corresponding least detected compound in whole sampling period. Field data confirms that amoxicillin is more prone to degradation with respect to other antibiotics. Estrone and 17-β estradiol are converted to estriol by natural processes in surface water.
TL;DR: The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities and to shed new light on biodeterioration processes.
Abstract: Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Oświecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities and to shed new light on biodeterioration processes.
TL;DR: It was concluded that it is possible to define risk sources with their risk classes and related membership degrees in that classes which enable the decision maker to decide which risk source has priority.
Abstract: Environmental management, for which environmental and human health risk assessment is the first stage, is a requirement for industries both before construction and during operation in order to sustain improved quality of life in the ecosystem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to propose an approach that integrates environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials in order to support environmental decision makers with quantitative and directive results. Analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy logic are used as tools to handle problems caused by complexity of environment and uncertain data. When the proposed approach is implemented to a scenario, it was concluded that it is possible to define risk sources with their risk classes and related membership degrees in that classes which enable the decision maker to decide which risk source has priority. In addition, they can easily point out and rank the factors contributing those risk sources owing to priority weights of them. As a result, environmental decision makers can use this approach while they are developing management alternatives for unfounded and on-going industrial plants using hazardous materials.
TL;DR: Results indicated that degradation products being more toxic than BPA were formed at the initial stages of H2O2/ UV-C whereas a rapid and steady reduction in toxicity was observed during S2O8(2-)/UV-C treatment in pure water.
Abstract: The performance of S2O82−/UV-C and H2O2/UV-C treatments was investigated for the degradation and detoxification of Bisphenol A (BPA). The acute toxicity of BPA and its degradation products was examined with the Vibrio fischeri bioassay, whereas changes in estrogenic activity were followed with the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay. LC and LC–MS/MS analyses were conducted to determine degradation products evolving during photochemical treatment. In addition, BPA-spiked real freshwater samples were also subjected to S2O82−/UV-C and H2O2/UV-C treatment to study the effect of a real water matrix on BPA removal and detoxification rates. BPA removal in pure water was very fast (⩽7 min) and complete via both H2O2/UV-C and S2O82−/UV-C treatment, accompanied with rapid and significant mineralization rates ranging between 70% and 85%. V. fischeri bioassay results indicated that degradation products being more toxic than BPA were formed at the initial stages of H2O2/UV-C whereas a rapid and steady reduction in toxicity was observed during S2O82−/UV-C treatment in pure water. UV-C treatment products exhibited a higher estrogenic activity than the original BPA solution while the estrogenicity of BPA was completely removed during H2O2/UV-C and S2O82−/UV-C treatments parallel to its degradation. 3-methylbenzoic and 4-sulfobenzoic acids, as well as the ring opening products fumaric, succinic and oxalic acids could be identified as degradation products. BPA degradation required extended treatment periods (>20 min) and TOC removals were considerably retarded (by 40%) in the raw freshwater matrix most probably due to its natural organic matter content (TOC = 5.1 mg L−1). H2O2/UV-C and S2O82−/UV-C treatment in raw freshwater did not result in toxic degradation products.
TL;DR: The analysis of the experimental data showed that the oxygen utilization started with a delayed response after substrate addition, and the delayed logarithmic phase could be characterized by a Haldane type of inhibition kinetics.
Abstract: The study evaluated the biodegradation characteristics of a mixture of organics with different biodegradation characteristics in an integrated chemical plant effluent. The wastewater had a total chemical oxygen demand (COD) content of 12,800mg/L, mostly soluble and 93% biodegradable. The evaluation was based on respirometry, and mainly consisted on model calibration and interpretation of the oxygen uptake rate data, which exhibited an original and specific profile with a sequence of two peaks and three plateaus. A specific model was defined for this purpose, which identified four different biodegradable COD components with significantly different process kinetics. The major fraction accounting for 57% of the total biodegradable COD in the wastewater had to be hydrolyzed before biodegradation with a low hydrolysis rate of 1.3day(-1). The analysis of the experimental data showed that the oxygen utilization started with a delayed response after substrate addition. The delayed logarithmic phase could be characterized by a Haldane type of inhibition kinetics.
TL;DR: A review of the current state-of-the-art on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment is presented in this article, where the environmental risk posed by these contaminants is evaluated in light of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria.
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a unique group of emerging environmental contaminants, due to their inherent ability to induce physiological effects in human at low doses. An increasing number of studies has confirmed the presence of various PPCPs in different environmental compartments, which raises concerns about the potential adverse effects to humans and wildlife. Therefore, this article reviews the current state-of-knowledge on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment. The environmental risk posed by these contaminants is evaluated in light of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria. Available literature on the sources, transport and degradation of PPCPs in the aquatic environment are evaluated, followed by a comprehensive review of the reported concentrations of different PPCP groups in the freshwater aquatic environment (water, sediment and biota) of the five continents. Finally, future perspectives for research on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment are discussed in light of the identified research gaps in current knowledge.
TL;DR: Most frequent substances as well as those found at highest concentrations in different seasons and regions, together with available risk assessment data, may be useful to identify possible future PS candidates.
Abstract: The contamination of fresh water is a global concern. The huge impact of natural and anthropogenic organic substances that are constantly released into the environment, demands a better knowledge of the chemical status of Earth's surface water. Water quality monitoring studies have been performed targeting different substances and/or classes of substances, in different regions of the world, using different types of sampling strategies and campaigns. This review article aims to gather the available dispersed information regarding the occurrence of priority substances (PSs) and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that must be monitored in Europe in surface water, according to the European Union Directive 2013/39/EU and the Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU, respectively. Other specific organic pollutants not considered in these EU documents as substances of high concern, but with reported elevated frequency of detection at high concentrations, are also discussed. The search comprised worldwide publications from 2012, considering at least one of the following criteria: 4 sampling campaigns per year, wet and dry seasons, temporal and/or spatial monitoring of surface (river, estuarine, lake and/or coastal waters) and ground waters. The highest concentrations were found for: (i) the PSs atrazine, alachlor, trifluralin, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; (ii) the CECs azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, diclofenac, 17α-ethinylestradiol, imidacloprid and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate; and (iii) other unregulated organic compounds (caffeine, naproxen, metolachlor, estriol, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ketoprofen, atenolol, Bisphenol A, metoprolol, carbofuran, malathion, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine and ofloxacin). Most frequent substances as well as those found at highest concentrations in different seasons and regions, together with available risk assessment data, may be useful to identify possible future PS candidates.
TL;DR: This review provides an overview on the fate and removal of pharmaceutical compounds via biological treatment process.
Abstract: Due to research advancement and discoveries in the field of medical science, maintains and provides better human health and safer life, which lead to high demand for production of pharmaceutical compounds with a concomitant increase in population. These pharmaceutical (biologically active) compounds were not fully metabolized by the body and excreted out in wastewater. This micro-pollutant remains unchanged during wastewater treatment plant operation and enters into the receiving environment via the discharge of treated water. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds in both surface and ground waters becomes a major concern due to their potential eco-toxicity. Pharmaceuticals (emerging micro-pollutants) deteriorate the water quality and impart a toxic effect on living organisms. Therefore, from last two decades, plenty of studies were conducted on the occurrence, impact, and removal of pharmaceutical residues from the environment. This review provides an overview on the fate and removal of pharmaceutical compounds via biological treatment process.
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the science regarding EE2, the concentration levels in the environment (water, sediment and biota) and summarize the effects of this compound on exposed biota at various concentrations, stage life, sex, and species.
Abstract: 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic hormone, which is a derivative of the natural hormone, estradiol (E2). EE2 is an orally bio-active estrogen, and is one of the most commonly used medications for humans as well as livestock and aquaculture activity. EE2 has become a widespread problem in the environment due to its high resistance to the process of degradation and its tendency to (i) absorb organic matter, (ii) accumulate in sediment and (iii) concentrate in biota. Numerous studies have reported the ability of EE2 to alter sex determination, delay sexual maturity, and decrease the secondary sexual characteristics of exposed organisms even at a low concentration (ng/L) by mimicking its natural analogue, 17β-estradiol (E2). Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the science regarding EE2, the concentration levels in the environment (water, sediment and biota) and summarize the effects of this compound on exposed biota at various concentrations, stage life, sex, and species. The challenges in respect of EE2 include the extension of the limited database on the EE2 pollution profile in the environment, its fate and transport mechanism, as well as the exposure level of EE2 for better prediction and definition revision of EE2 toxicity end points, notably for the purpose of environmental risk assessment.
TL;DR: This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries.
Abstract: Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries.